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Combustion deposit 燃燒沉積物 Ash, carbon, and other incombustible solids, often due to impurities in the fuel, that build up on any surfaces exposed to products of combustion. They can lead to corrosion, reduced heat transfer and so higher flue-gas temperatures and reduced efficiency.
灰、碳和其他不燃固體,通常是由于燃料中的雜質,在暴露于燃燒產物的任何表面上堆積。它們會導致腐蝕、傳熱降低,從而導致煙氣溫度升高和效率降低。
Turning angle (θ) 轉向角(θ) The change in direction experienced by a gas flow passing through an oblique shock wave or Prandtl–Meyer expansion fan.
氣流通過斜激波或Prandtl–Meyer膨脹風機時所經歷的方向變化。
Microscopic stresses 微觀應力 Residual stresses that vary from tension to compression in a distance (presumably approximating the grain size) that is small compared with the gage length in ordinary strain measurements. They are not detectable by dissection methods, but can sometimes be measured from line shift or line broadening in an x-ray diffraction pattern.
與普通應變測量中的標距相比,從拉伸到壓縮的距離(大概接近晶粒尺寸)較小的殘余應力。它們無法通過解剖方法檢測到,但有時可以通過x射線衍射圖案中的線位移或線加寬來測量。
Cold treatment 冷處理 Treatment carried out after quenching to transform retained austenite into martensite, involving cooling and holding at a temperature below ambient.
淬火后進行的處理,以將殘余奧氏體轉變為馬氏體,包括冷卻和保持在低于環境溫度的溫度。
Turbo generator 渦輪發電機 (turboset) The combination of a steam or gas turbine and an electrical generator with a single shaft or connected coaxial shafts.
(汽輪發電機組)蒸汽或燃氣輪機與發電機的組合,具有單軸或連接的同軸。
Bond strength (Unit Pa) 結合強度(單位Pa) The tensile, compressive or shear stress at which joints fail, e.g. by fracture or excessive deformation.
接頭失效的拉伸、壓縮或剪切應力,例如斷裂或過度變形。
Acoustic pyrometer 聲學高溫計 A non-intrusive pyrometer based on the principle that the sound speed in a gas is proportional to the square root of its absolute temperature.
一種非侵入式高溫計,其原理是氣體中的聲速與其絕對溫度的平方根成正比。
Absorption 吸收 The process whereby a fluid permeates a porous solid, or a gas is dissolved by a liquid.
流體滲透多孔固體或氣體被液體溶解的過程。
Shear test 剪切試驗 Any of several tests to obtain shear strength of a metal. Common tests used on mill products include the double-shear test, single-shear test, the blanking shear test (also known as the punching shear test) and the torsion test.
獲得金屬剪切強度的幾種測試中的任何一種。軋機產品上常用的試驗包括雙剪試驗、單剪試驗、落料剪切試驗(也稱為沖切試驗)和扭轉試驗。
Sample median 樣本中間值 The middle value when all observed values in a sample are arranged in order of magnitude. If an even number of samples are tested, the average of the two middlemost values is used. It is a point estimate of the population median, or 50% point.
當樣本中的所有觀測值按數量級排列時的中間值。如果測試的樣本數為偶數,則使用兩個中間值的平均值。這是人口中位數的一個點估計值,或50%的點。
Tension, bolt 螺栓張力 Tension (tensile stress) created in the bolt by assembly preloads and=or such things as thermal expansion, service loads, etc.
由組件預載和=或熱膨脹、工作載荷等因素在螺栓中產生的張力(拉伸應力)。
System engineering 系統工程 A methodology which integrates all disciplines and specialty groups into a team effort, forming a structured development process that proceeds from concept to production to operation.
一種將所有學科和專業組整合到團隊工作中的方法,形成從概念到生產再到運營的結構化開發過程。
Anelastic 無彈性 Literally ‘not elastic’, but in practice used for materials that display timedependent recovery on unloading.
字面意思是“沒有彈性”,但實際上用于在卸載時顯示隨時間恢復的材料。
Strength of materials 材料強度 A confusing name for what is really stress analysis, reflecting older engineering design based upon elasticity and ‘theories of strength’ for different materials, without regard to cracks.
對于真正的應力分析,這是一個具有迷惑性的名稱,反映了基于彈性和不同材料的“強度理論”的舊工程設計,而不考慮斷裂。
Profile 輪廓 The shape of a cross section of an object, such as an aerofoil or cam.
物體的橫截面形狀,如機翼或凸輪。
Valve plug 閥塞 A conical or cylindrical plug, in which there are transverse holes, in a valve, such as a plug valve. Flow through the holes occurs when the plug is rotated.
閥門中的圓錐形或圓柱形閥塞,其中有橫向孔,如旋塞閥。旋轉閥塞時,會發生通過孔的流動
Mechanical units 機械單位 The units of physical quantities, the dimensions of which includemass, length, and time.
物理量的單位,其量綱包括質量、長度和時間。
Annealing carbon 退火碳 Fine, apparently amorphous carbon particles formed in white cast iron and certain steels during prolonged annealing. Also called temper carbon.
白口鑄鐵和某些鋼在長時間退火過程中形成的細小、明顯的無定形碳顆粒。也稱為回火碳。
Grinding 研磨 1. A process of high-speed multiple scratching of surfaces by a wheel formed from hard grits and a binder which are progressively exposed as the binder wears away. It is a process of micromachining employed particularly in accurate finishing operations on hard materials. 2. A form of comminution.
1.一種通過由硬砂礫和粘合劑形成的輪對表面進行高速多次刮擦的方法,所述硬砂礫和粘結劑隨著粘合劑的磨損而逐漸暴露。這是一種微機械加工工藝,特別適用于硬材料的精確精加工操作。2.一種粉碎形式。
Mean value 平均值 The average value of a number of data points. Computed by dividing the sum of all data by the number of data points.
多個數據點的平均值。通過將所有數據的總和除以數據點的數量來計算。
Atomizing humidifier 霧化加濕器 A humidifier that functions by spraying fine droplets of water into an airstream.
一種加濕器,通過將細小的水滴噴射到氣流中來發揮作用。
Die casting 壓鑄 A process in which molten metal, particularly alloys of aluminium, magnesium, copper, and zinc, is forced under pressure (10 to 200 MPa) into a reusable hardened-steel mould machined into a die.
在壓力(10至200MPa)下將熔融金屬(特別是鋁、鎂、銅和鋅的合金)強制進入加工成模具的可重復使用的硬化鋼模具中的過程。
Radian (rad) 弧度(rad) A coherent derived SI unit defined as the plane angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc having a length equal to the radius. Thus 2π radians are equivalent to 360° and 1 rad ≈ 57.3°.
一種相干導出的國際單位制單位,定義為在圓心處被長度等于半徑的弧對向的平面角。因此,2π弧度相當于360°和1弧度≈57.3°.
Residual strength (Unit N) 剩余強度(單位:N) The strength of a damaged body containing defects induced by microcracking, thermal shock, etc.
包含由微裂紋、熱沖擊等引起的缺陷的受損體的強度。
Junker machine 容克機 A test machine, first proposed by Gerhard Junker, for testing the vibration resistance of fasteners.
由Gerhard Junker首次提出的測試機,用于測試緊固件的抗振性。
Threading machine 螺紋機 A machine used to cut an external thread on a rod, tube, bolt blank, etc. or an internal thread in a hole, tube, nut blank, etc.
用于切割桿、管、螺栓毛坯等上的外螺紋或孔、管、螺母毛坯等中的內螺紋的機器。
Concentrated load 集中負荷 A load on a component which is distributed over a very small area, idealized as the line load of a wedge or knife edge, and the point load of a cone.
分布在非常小的區域上的部件上的載荷,理想化為楔形或刀刃的線載荷和錐體的點載荷。
Fracture strength 斷裂強度 (fracture stress) (Unit Pa) The stress at which a material breaks. It is not absolute for a given material, as it depends on the laws of fracture mechanics and is size-dependent.
(斷裂應力)(單位Pa)材料斷裂時的應力。對于給定的材料,它不是絕對的,因為它取決于斷裂力學定律,并且取決于尺寸。
Vibration isolation 隔振 The prevention of transmission of vibration from one component of a system to another part of the same system, such as a building or other structure. Isolation may be achieved using dampers (vibration damping) or by active feedback-control methods. Mechanical vibration is often attenuated by means of components immersed in oil such as in dashpots (viscous damping). Vibration suppression can be achieved (a) using dampers and absorbers tuned to a particular frequency to suppress vibratory forces in structures and other systems (passive suppression) or (b) by the measurement of vibration at key locations in a structure and the application of? cancellation forces (active suppression).
防止振動從系統的一個部件傳遞到同一系統的另一部分,如建筑物或其他結構??梢允褂米枘崞鳎p振)或主動反饋控制方法實現隔離。機械振動通常通過浸入油中的部件來衰減,例如緩沖罐(粘性阻尼)??梢酝ㄟ^(a)使用調諧到特定頻率的阻尼器和吸收器來抑制結構和其他系統中的振動力(被動抑制),或(b)通過測量結構中關鍵位置的振動并施加抵消力(主動抑制),實現振動抑制。
Effective crack size (ae) 有效裂紋尺寸(ae) The physical crack size augmented for the effects of cracking plastic deformation. Sometimes the effective crack size is calculated from a measured value of a physical crack size plus a calculated value of a plastic-zone adjustment. A preferred method for calculation of effective crack size compares compliance from the secant of a load-deflection trace with the elastic compliance from a calibration for the type of specimen.
由于裂紋塑性變形的影響,物理裂紋尺寸增大。有時,根據物理裂紋尺寸的測量值加上塑性區調整的計算值來計算有效裂紋尺寸。計算有效裂紋尺寸的首選方法是將載荷-撓度軌跡正割的柔度與試樣類型校準的彈性柔度進行比較。
Elastic limit 彈性極限 The maximum stress which a material is capable of sustaining without any permanent strain (deformation) remaining on complete release of the stress.
材料在完全釋放應力時能夠承受的最大應力,且不會留下任何永久應變(變形)。
Vacuum pump 真空泵 A pump for exhausting air and non-condensable gases from a vessel to be maintained at sub-atmospheric pressure. The pirani and thermal-conductivity gauges are vacuum gauges used to measure the absolute pressure within a vacuum system (vacuum level), usually expressed in torr or Pa.
用于從容器中排出空氣和不凝性氣體以保持在亞大氣壓的泵。皮拉尼和熱導率計是用于測量真空系統內絕對壓力(真空水平)的真空計,通常用托或帕表示。
Ferrite 鐵素體 A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron. Unless otherwise designated (for instance, as chromium ferrite), the solute is generally assumed to be carbon. On some equilibrium diagrams, there are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed.
一種或多種元素在體心立方鐵中的固溶體。除非另有說明(例如,鐵酸鉻),否則通常假定溶質為碳。在一些平衡圖上,有兩個鐵素體區域被一個奧氏體區域隔開。下部區域為α鐵素體;上部,δ鐵氧體。如果沒有指定,則假定為 α 鐵氧體。
Torsional shaft vibration 扭軸振動 The rapid back-and-forth angular twisting along a rotating unbalanced shaft which reaches maxima at critical rotation speeds. Shaft eccentricity, unbalanced mass distribution, oscillatory torque, misalignment, etc. all influence torsional vibration.
沿旋轉不平衡軸的快速來回角扭轉,在臨界轉速下達到最大值。軸偏心、質量分布不平衡、振蕩扭矩、未對準等都會影響扭轉振動。
Torr 托爾 A non-SI unit of pressure commonly used in vacuum systems; defined by 760 torr = 1 atm so that 1 torr = 133.322 368 4 Pa, and approximately equivalent to the pressure corresponding to 1 mm of mercury.
真空系統中常用的非SI壓力單位;由760托=1大氣壓定義,因此1托=133.3223684帕,近似等于對應于1毫米汞柱的壓力。
Caustic quenching 苛性淬火 Quenching with aqueous solutions of 5 to 10% sodium hydroxide (NaOH).
用5%至10%氫氧化鈉(NaOH)水溶液淬滅。
Coarse threads 粗螺紋 Threads with relatively large separation between corresponding points on the threads.
螺紋上相應點之間的間距相對較大的螺紋。
Relaxation rate 松弛率 The absolute value of the slope of a stress-relaxation curve at a given time.
給定時間應力松弛曲線斜率的絕對值。
Cementite 滲碳體 A compound of iron and carbon, known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. When it occurs as a phase in steel, the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements.
碳化鐵一種鐵和碳的化合物,化學上稱為碳化鐵,化學式近似為Fe3C。其特征在于正交晶體結構。當它在鋼中以相形式出現時,錳和其他碳化物形成元素的存在將改變其化學成分。
Mohs scale 莫氏硬度 A scale of scratch hardness originally developed for minerals.
最初為礦物開發的劃痕硬度標尺。
Slant fracture 傾斜裂縫 A type of fracture appearance, typical of plane-stress fractures, in which the plane of metal separation is inclined at an angle (usually about 45°) to the axis of the applied stress.
一種斷裂現象,典型的平面應力斷裂,其中金屬分離面與施加應力的軸成一定角度(通常約45°)傾斜。
Oil quenching 油淬 Hardening of carbon steel in an oil bath. Oils are categorized as conventional, fast, martempering, or hot quenching.
碳鋼在油浴中的硬化。分為常規、快速、馬氏體淬火或熱淬火。
Engineering strain (e) 工程應變(e) A term sometimes used for average linear strain or conventional strain in order to differentiate it from true strain. In tension testing it is calculated by dividing the change in the gage length by the original gage length.
一個術語,有時用于平均線性應變或常規應變,以便將其與真實應變區分開來。在張力測試中,通過將標距變化除以原始標距來計算。
Activation energy 活化能 (Ea, U) (Unit kJ/mol) The minimum energy for a chemical reaction to occur or for processes such as diffusion to take place in crystals.
(Ea, U)(單位kJ/mol)發生化學反應或在晶體中發生擴散等過程的最小能量。
Wave spring 波形彈簧 A type of compression spring, similar to a coil spring, but made of strip shaped into waves around the circumference.
一種壓縮彈簧,類似于螺旋彈簧,但由沿圓周成波浪形的條狀物制成。
Cold working 冷加工 The plastic deformation of a metal, by rolling (cold rolling), drawing, forging (cold forging), etc. at a temperature well below its recrystallization temperature, which results not only in permanent shape change but also increase in strength and loss of ductility owing to work-hardening.
金屬在遠低于其再結晶溫度的溫度下通過軋制(冷軋)、拉拔、鍛造(冷鍛)等方式發生塑性變形,這不僅會導致永久的形狀變化,還會增加強度并降低延展性由于加工硬化。
Crack-extension force (G) 裂紋擴展力(G) The elastic energy per unit of new separation area that would be made available at the front of an ideal crack in an elastic solid during a virtual increment of forward crack extension.
在向前裂紋擴展的虛擬增量期間,在彈性固體中理想裂紋的前端可獲得的每單位新分離面積的彈性能量。
Permanent set 永久變形 The deformation or strain remaining in a previously stressed body after release of load.
釋放荷載后,先前受力物體中剩余的變形或應變。
Hydrogen-induced delayed cracking 氫致延遲開裂 A term sometimes used to identify a form of hydrogen embrittlement in which a metal appears to fracture spontaneously under a steady stress less than the yield stress. There is usually a delay between the application of stress (or exposure of the stressed metal to hydrogen) and the onset of cracking. Also referred to as static fatigue.
有時用于識別一種氫脆形式的術語,其中金屬在小于屈服應力的穩定應力下似乎會自發斷裂。在施加應力(或將受應力金屬暴露于氫)與開裂開始之間通常存在延遲。也稱為靜態疲勞。
Length of engagement 嚙合長度 It is the axial measurement within which the external and internal threads have theoretical contact.
它是外螺紋和內螺紋具有理論接觸的軸向測量。
Wear rate 磨損率 The rate of material removal or dimensional change due to wear per unit of exposure parameter—for example, quantity of material removed(mass, volume, thickness) in unit distance of sliding or unit time.
由于單位暴露參數的磨損而導致的材料去除率或尺寸變化,例如,單位滑動距離或單位時間內去除的材料數量(質量、體積、厚度)。
Workspace (Unit m3) 工作空間(單位m3) (working-space volume) The volume around the base frame of a robot, defined by the reach of the robot. The robot can thus only perform tasks within this volume.
(工作空間體積)機器人基架周圍的體積,由機器人的可達范圍定義。因此,機器人只能執行該體積內的任務。
Swift cup test 斯威夫特杯測試 A simulative cupping test in which circular blanks of various diameters are clamped in a die ring and deep drawn into cups by a flat-bottomed cylindrical punch.
一種模擬拔杯試驗,將不同直徑的圓形坯料夾緊在模環中,并用平底圓柱沖頭將其深拉入杯中。
Natural unit system (n.u. system) 自然單位制(n.u.制) A non-SI system of units, based on fundamental constants, used in high-energy and particle physics. The n.u. of speed is the speed of light in a vacuum, c0?= 299 792 458 m/s.
基于基本常數的非國際單位制,用于高能和粒子物理n.u.速度是真空中的光速,c0=299792458m/s。
Load 負載 For testing machines, a force applied to a test piece that is measured in units such as pound-force, newton, or kilogram-force.
對于試驗機,施加在試件上的力,以磅力、牛頓或千克力等單位測量。
Delamination 分層 A mode of failure of composite materials, including radial-ply tyres, in which the layers separate due to repeated cyclic loading, impact, or weak bonding.
復合材料的一種失效模式,包括子午線輪胎,其中層由于重復的循環載荷、沖擊或弱粘合而分離。
Major diameter 螺紋大徑 On a straight thread, the diameter of the imaginary cylinder that just touches the crest of an external thread or the root of an internal thread.
在直螺紋上,僅接觸外螺紋頂部或內螺紋根部的假想圓柱體的直徑。
Root diameter (Unit m) 根部直徑(單位:m) The diameter of the circle passing through the roots of teeth in gear teeth or screw threads.
穿過齒輪齒或螺紋中齒根的圓的直徑。
Hot stamping 熱沖壓 Hot forging of brass and bronze alloys.
黃銅和青銅合金的熱鍛。
Gage length 標距 The original length of the portion of a specimen over which strain, change of length, or other characteristics are determined.
確定應變、長度變化或其他特性的試樣部分的原始長度。
Distortion 扭曲 Any deviation from an original size, shape, or contour that occurs because of the application of stress or the release of residual stress.
由于施加應力或釋放殘余應力而發生的與原始尺寸、形狀或輪廓的任何偏差。
Final annealing 最終退火 An imprecise term used to denote the last anneal given to a nonferrous alloy prior to shipment.
一個不精確的術語,用于表示有色金屬合金在裝運前的最后一次退火。
Plastic deformation 塑性變形 The permanent (inelastic) distortion of a material under applied stress that strains the material beyond its elastic limit.
材料在施加應力下的永久(非彈性)變形,使材料應變超過其彈性極限。
V-block V型塊 A block having a 90° V-shaped recess; used in a workshop to hold round workpieces.
具有90°V形凹槽的塊體;在車間里用來裝圓形工件。
Thermal energy (heat energy) (Unit J) 熱能(單位:J) The sensible and latent forms of internal energy.
內能的感知和潛在形式。
Chain dimensioning 鏈條尺寸標注 On an engineering drawing, where the end point of one dimension is the starting point for the next. Parallel dimensioning is preferred as chain dimensioning can lead to the accumulation of tolerances.
在工程圖紙上,其中一個尺寸的終點是下一個的起點。平行尺寸標注是首選,因為鏈尺寸標注可能導致公差累積。
Celsius temperature scale 攝氏溫標 (centigrade temperature scale) A relative, non-SI, temperature scale now defined in terms of the Kelvin absolute temperature scale as °C = K ? 273.15, where °C is the symbol for degrees Celsius. The scale was previously called the centigrade scale, with two fixed points: the melting point of ice (the ice point) as 0°C, and the boiling point of water (the steam point) as 100°C.
(攝氏度溫度標度)現在以開爾文絕對溫度標度定義的相對非國際溫度標度為°C=K-273.15,其中°C是攝氏度的符號。該刻度以前稱為攝氏度刻度,有兩個固定點:冰的熔點(冰點)為0°C,水的沸點(蒸汽點)為100°C。
Horizontal batch furnace 臥式間歇爐 A versatile batch-type furnace that can give light or deep case depths, and because the parts are not exposed to air, horizontal batch furnaces can give surfaces almost entirely free of oxides.
一種多功能間歇式爐,可以提供淺或深的外殼深度,并且由于零件不暴露在空氣中,臥式間歇式爐可以使表面幾乎完全沒有氧化物。
Minimum material condition 最小材料條件 (minimum metal condition) The situation where the volume of a manufactured component corresponds to the lower limit of all toleranced external dimensions and to the upper limit for all internal dimensions.
(最小金屬條件)制造部件的體積對應于所有公差外部尺寸的下限和所有內部尺寸的上限的情況。
Waste heat 廢熱 1. Heat generated by internal-combustion engines, gas turbines, electrical generators, electrical equipment, and industrial processes that is not used directly but is expelled to the environment, often in hot flue or exhaust gases. 2. Heat generated from waste
1.內燃機、燃氣輪機、發電機、電氣設備和工業過程產生的熱量,這些熱量不是直接使用的,而是通過熱煙氣或廢氣排放到環境中。2.廢物產生的熱量
Bucket 吊桶 1. A cup-shaped vane with a central dividing ridge attached to the periphery of the runner of an impulse water turbine such as a Pelton turbine. 2. A rotor blade in a compressor or turbine.
1.一種杯形葉片,所述杯形葉片具有附接到沖擊式水輪機(例如沖擊式水輪機臺)的轉輪的外圍的中央分隔脊。2.壓縮機或渦輪機中的轉子葉片。
Fog quenching 霧淬 Quenching in a fine vapor or mist.
在細蒸汽或薄霧中淬火。
Kilocalorie 千卡 (Cal, kg-cal, kilogram-calorie, large calorie) An obsolete (i.e. non-SI) unit of energy equal to 1 000 cal.
(卡,千克卡,千克卡路里,大卡路里)一種已被淘汰的(即非國際單位制)能量單位,等于1000卡。
Transformation toughening 相變增韌 The improvement of fracture toughness of a material by stress-induced transformation of the microstructure.
通過微結構的應力誘導轉變來提高材料的斷裂韌性。
Balance piston 平衡活塞 (balance drum, dummy piston) A disc attached to the shaft of a turbine or compressor, to one side of which high or low pressure is applied to counteract the axial thrust produced by the pressure change across the machine. A form of thrust bearing.
(平衡鼓,假活塞)連接在渦輪機或壓縮機軸上的圓盤,在其一側施加高壓或低壓,以抵消機器壓力變化產生的軸向推力。推力軸承的一種形式。
Austenitic stainless steels 奧氏體不銹鋼 Austenitic stainless steels are non-magnetic. They contain significant additions of chromium (16–30%), but have the austenite (FCC) crystal structure, stabilized by the addition of nickel in the composition range 6–20%. Carbon content ranges from about 0.03 to 0.15%. The ‘18–8’ stainless steels containing approximately 18% chromium and 8% nickel are typical of the class. Austenitic stainless steels have high strength and corrosion resistance even at elevated temperatures, good ductility, good low-temperature properties, and good weldability. Used for aircraft and transport equipment, cutlery, chemical and food-processing equipment, surgical instruments, and cryogenic vessels.
奧氏體不銹鋼是非磁性的。它們含有顯著添加的鉻(16–30%),但具有奧氏體(FCC)晶體結構,通過在6–20%的成分范圍內添加鎳來穩定。碳含量范圍約為0.03至0.15%。含有大約18%鉻和8%鎳的“18-8”不銹鋼是該級別的典型不銹鋼。奧氏體不銹鋼即使在高溫下也具有高強度和耐腐蝕性,良好的延展性,良好的低溫性能和良好的焊接性。用于飛機和運輸設備、餐具、化學和食品加工設備、手術器械和低溫容器。
Half hard 半硬化回火 A temper of nonferrous alloys and some ferrous alloys characterized by tensile strength about mid-way between that of dead soft and full hard tempers.
非鐵合金和某些鐵合金的一種回火,其特點是抗拉強度介于完全軟回火和完全硬回火之間。
Nominal size 公稱尺寸 The intended size of a component. The actual size will depend on manufacturing tolerances.
組件的預期尺寸。實際尺寸取決于制造公差。
Impact wrench 沖擊扳手 An air- or electric-powered wrench in which multiple blows from tiny hammers are used to produce output torque to tighten fasteners. A pneumatically-or electrically-powered socket wrench used to tighten or loosen nuts through the application of torque in a rapid series of impulses.
一種氣動或電動扳手,使用小錘子多次敲擊來產生輸出扭矩以擰緊緊固件,用于通過在一系列快速脈沖中施加扭矩來擰緊或松開螺母。
Overaging 過時效 Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property, so that the property is altered in the direction of the initial value.
在時間和溫度條件下的時效大于獲得某一特性最大變化所需的時間和溫度,從而使該特性沿初始值的方向發生變化。
Valve 閥門 Any of various manual or automatic devices that are able to initiate, regulate, or stop the flow of a fluid through a conduit or from a closed container.
任何一種手動或自動裝置,能夠啟動、調節或停止通過導管或封閉容器的流體流動。
Shear fracture 剪切斷裂 A ductile fracture in which a crystal (or a polycrystalline mass)has separated by sliding or tearing under the action of shear stresses. Contrast with cleavage fracture.
在剪切應力作用下,晶體(或多晶塊)通過滑動或撕裂而分離的韌性斷裂。與解理斷裂形成對比。
Materials science 材料科學 The study of the properties, behaviour, and application of solid substances such as metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, composites, biomaterials, and semiconductors, at all scales from the atomic to the macroscopic. The topic has its origins in metallurgy.
研究金屬、陶瓷、玻璃、聚合物、復合材料、生物材料和半導體等固體物質的特性、行為和應用,涵蓋從原子到宏觀的所有范圍。起源于冶金學。
Spring clip 彈簧夾 A clip made of a material such as spring steel which grips an inserted part.
由彈簧鋼等材料制成的夾子,用于夾住插入的零件。
Clearance angle 后角 (relief angle) (Unit °) The angle between the underneath or flank of a cutting tool and the machined surface.
(后角)(單位°)切削刀具的底部或側面與加工表面之間的角度。
Magnetic materials 磁性材料 Materials in which the magnetic moment of adjacent atoms can adopt either parallel or antiparallel alignment. Ferromagnetism occurs when the magnetic moments adopt parallel alignment. When adjacent magnetic moments cancel due to antiparallel alignment, the material exhibits antiferromagnetism and has no overall magnetic moment. Examples of the latter include ferrous oxide and manganese oxide. The phenomenon of ferrimagnetism occurs when adjacent magnetic moments adopt antiparallel alignment but have unequal magnitude. The region of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material in which the magnetic moments are aligned is known as a magnetic domain and adjacent regions are separated by domain walls. Diamagnetic and paramagnetic materials exhibit weak forms of magnetism that results from independent (uncoupled) alignment of magnetic atomic dipoles induced by an applied magnetic field. Ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic materials can acquire high degrees of magnetization in relatively weak magnetic fields. They have different hysteresis characteristics and are classified as either hard magnets or soft magnets. Hard magnets retain large magnetization in the absence of an applied magnetic field and are used as permanent magnets. Conventional materials include magnet steels alloyed with tungsten or cobalt. Rare-earth magnets made from alloys of rare-earth elements produce significantly stronger magnetic fields. The most common of these are samarium-cobalt and neodymiumiron-boron permanent magnets. Their strength allows them to be small and used in numerous applications, including cordless tools, disk drives, headphones, toys, and motors for automotive components such as wipers, fans, washers, and windows. Soft magnets may be magnetized and demagnetized relatively easily. When subjected to an alternating magnetic? field the energy loss due to hysteresis is small. Common materials include iron-silicon alloys (known as electrical steels), nickel-iron alloys (permalloy), soft ferrites, and amorphous nanocrystalline alloys, the last of which can be produced in the form of tape by meltspinning. Soft magnets are used to enhance the magnetic flux produced by an electric current.
相鄰原子的磁矩可以采用平行或反平行排列的材料。當磁矩采用平行排列時,會產生鐵磁性。當相鄰磁矩因反平行排列而抵消時,材料表現出反鐵磁性,沒有總磁矩。后者的實例包括氧化亞鐵和氧化錳。當相鄰磁矩采用反平行排列但大小不等時,就會出現鐵磁現象。磁矩對齊的鐵磁或鐵磁材料區域稱為磁疇,相鄰區域由磁疇壁分隔??勾藕晚槾挪牧媳憩F出弱磁性形式,這是由外加磁場誘導的磁原子偶極子的獨立(非耦合)排列引起的。鐵磁性和鐵磁性材料可以在相對弱的磁場中獲得高磁化度。它們具有不同的磁滯特性,分為硬磁鐵和軟磁鐵。硬磁鐵在沒有外加磁場的情況下保持較大的磁化強度,用作永磁體。常規材料包括與鎢或鈷合金化的磁鋼。由稀土元素合金制成的稀土磁體產生明顯更強的磁場。其中最常見的是釤鈷和釹硼永磁體。它們的強度使其體積小,可用于多種應用,包括無繩工具、磁盤驅動器、耳機、玩具和汽車部件(如雨刷、風扇、洗衣機和車窗)的電機。軟磁體可以相對容易地磁化和退磁。當受到交變磁場時,由于磁滯引起的能量損失很小。常見材料包括鐵硅合金(稱為電工鋼)、鎳鐵合金(坡莫合金)、軟鐵氧體和非晶納米晶合金,最后一種可以通過熔釘以膠帶的形式生產。軟磁鐵用于增強電流產生的磁通量。
Compression stroke 壓縮沖程 The stroke in a reciprocating compressor or engine during which the working fluid is compressed.
往復式壓縮機或發動機中工作流體被壓縮的沖程。
Friction materials 摩擦材料 Materials having a high coefficient of friction which, when coupled with a long life, may be employed as brake linings or the facing of the plates of a clutch.
具有高摩擦系數的材料,當與長壽命相結合時,可用作制動襯片或離合器片的飾面。
Yield strength 屈服強度 That stress level which will create a permanent deformation of 0.2% or 0.5% or some other small, preselected, amount in a body.? Approximately equal to the elastic and proportional limits of the material; a little higher than the proof strength of a bolt. The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals.
該應力水平將在物體中產生0.2%或0.5%的永久變形,或其他一些小的、預先選定的量。近似等于材料的彈性和比例極限;略高于螺栓的強度。材料表現出與應力和應變比例的特定偏差的應力。許多金屬使用0.2%的偏移量。
Hardness test 硬度測試 1. Any of various tests in which different hard indenters are forced into the surface of a solid under different loads to give permanent impressions, the pressure to cause which being called the hardness. The Brinell test employs a spherical indenter; the Vickers test a square-based pyramid. The relation between indentation hardness H and uniaxial yield stress Y is approximately H = (2.5 ~ 3.0)Y. Originally hardnesses were given in kg/mm2 but now are often given in Pa. 2. The tests for scratch and file hardness relate either to one material being able to mark another (Mohs hardness scale for minerals), or to the size of groove produced by a rigid indenter slid under load across a surface. 3. Rebound hardness concerns the height of rebound of a dropped indenter, or an indenter at the end of a pivoted arm, having struck a surface.
1.任何一種試驗,其中不同的硬壓頭在不同載荷下壓入固體表面,以產生永久壓痕,所產生的壓力稱為硬度。布氏試驗采用球形壓頭;維氏硬度測試是一個方形金字塔。壓痕硬度H與單軸屈服應力Y之間的關系約為H=(2.5~3.0)Y。最初硬度以kg/mm2為單位,但現在通常在Pa.2中給出。劃痕和銼刀硬度測試要么與一種材料能夠標記另一種材料(礦物的莫氏硬度標度)有關,要么與剛性壓頭在表面上滑動產生的凹槽大小有關。3.回彈硬度涉及掉落壓頭或旋轉臂端部壓頭撞擊表面后的回彈高度。
Radial wave equation 徑向波動方程 A differential equation describing the transmission of a wave in a system with radial symmetry.
描述波在徑向對稱系統中傳輸的微分方程。
Age hardening 時效硬化 Raising the strength and hardness of an alloy by heating a supersaturated solid solution at a relatively low temperature to induce precipitation of a finely dispersed second phase. Also known as aging or precipitation hardening. Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working.
通過在相對較低的溫度下加熱過飽和固溶體以誘導細分散的第二相沉淀來提高合金的強度和硬度。也稱為時效或沉淀硬化。通常在快速冷卻或冷加工后。
True strain 真應變 ?(1) The ratio of the change in dimension, resulting from a given load increment, to the magnitude of the dimension immediately prior to applying the load increment. (2) In a body subjected to axial force, the natural logarithm of the ratio of the gage length at the moment of observation to the original gage length. Also known as natural strain. Compare with engineering strain.
(1)給定載荷增量導致的尺寸變化與施加載荷增量之前尺寸大小的比率。(2)在承受軸向力的物體中,觀察時刻標距與原始標距之比的自然對數。也稱為自然應變。與工程應變相比。
Diesel engine 柴油發動機 (compression–ignition engine) A piston engine operating on the Diesel cycle in which the air is compressed to a temperature above the autoignition temperature of the fuel and combustion is initiated as the fuel is injected into the hot air. Diesel engines operate at higher compression ratios (typically in the range 12 to 24) than petrol engines. Although named after Rudolf Diesel, the inventor, Diesel engine is often spelled with a lower case d, contrary to normal practice.
(壓燃式發動機)在柴油循環中運行的活塞式發動機,在該循環中,空氣被壓縮至高于燃料自燃溫度的溫度,當燃料噴射到熱空氣中時,燃燒開始。柴油發動機在比汽油發動機更高的壓縮比下運行(通常在12到24的范圍內)。雖然以發明人魯道夫·迪塞爾命名,但迪塞爾發動機通常拼寫為小寫d,這與正常做法相反。
Screw area (Unit m2) 螺絲面積(單位m2) The area of a circle described by the tips of a propeller.
螺旋槳尖端所描述的圓的面積。
Blow moulding 吹塑 The manufacture of hollow polymer objects (e.g. bottles) by expanding, with internal air pressure, a tube sealed at one end (parison) against the walls of a cavity mould.
通過使用內部氣壓使一端密封的管子(型坯)靠在型腔模具的壁上膨脹來制造中空聚合物物體(例如瓶子)。
Spring temper 彈簧回火 A temper of nonferrous alloys and some ferrous alloys characterized by tensile strength and hardness about two-thirds of the way from full hard to extra spring temper.
非鐵合金和一些鐵合金的一種回火,其特點是抗拉強度和硬度約為全硬回火到超彈性回火的三分之二。
Effective radius of nut, bolt head, or threads 螺母、螺栓頭或螺紋的有效半徑 Distance between the geometric center of the part and the circle of points through which the resultant contact forces between mating parts passes. Must be determined by integration.
零件幾何中心與配合零件之間的合力通過的點圓之間的距離。必須通過積分來確定。
Calorizing 熱化 Imparting resistance to oxidation to an iron or steel surface by heating in aluminum powder at 800 to 1000 °C (1470 to 1830 °F).
通過在800至1000°C(1470至1830°F)下加熱鋁粉,賦予鐵或鋼表面抗氧化性。
Torque wrench 扭矩扳手 A manual wrench which incorporates a gage or measuring apparatus of some sort to measure and display the amount of torque being delivered to the nut or bolt. All wrenches produce torque. Only a torque wrench tells how much torque. A socket wrench or ring spanner that can be set to allow a specific torque to be applied to a nut or bolt head.
一種手動扳手,包括某種量規或測量裝置,用于測量和顯示傳遞至螺母或螺栓的扭矩量。所有扳手都產生扭矩。只有扭矩扳手才能顯示扭矩大小。一種套筒扳手或梅花扳手,可設置為允許對螺母或螺栓頭施加特定扭矩。
Hysteresis 滯后 The phenomenon of permanently absorbed or lost energy that occurs during any cycle of loading or unloading when a material is subjected to repeated loading.
當材料經受重復加載時,在任何加載或卸載循環期間發生的永久吸收或損失能量的現象。
Torsion bar 扭桿 A metal bar designed to act as an elastic spring when torque is applied.
當施加扭矩時用作彈性彈簧的金屬棒。
Weld penetration 焊接熔深 It is the depth below the surfaces, as revealed in microstructural sections of joined metals, which is melted during welding.
它是焊接過程中熔化的連接金屬的微觀結構截面所顯示的表面以下的深度。
Combined stresses 復合應力 The stress state at a point in a component subjected to combination of axial, bending, torsional loadings etc., acting along all reference axes.
沿所有參考軸作用的受軸向、彎曲、扭轉載荷等組合作用的部件中某點的應力狀態。
Thread form 螺紋形式 The cross-sectional shape of the threads, defining thread angle, root, and crest profiles, etc. Thread length Length of that portion of the fastener which contains threads cut or rolled to full depth.
螺紋的橫截面形狀,定義螺紋角度、齒根和齒冠輪廓等。螺紋長度:緊固件中包含全深度切割或軋制螺紋的部分的長度。
Angularity 角度 The underfaces of the nut and the bolt head should be exactly perpendicular to the thread or shank axes. If the angle between the face and the axis is, for example, 868 or 948, the fastener is said to have an angularity of 48 (sometimes called Perpendicularity).
螺母和螺栓頭的底面應與螺紋或柄軸完全垂直。例如,如果面和軸之間的角度為868或948,則稱緊固件的角度為48(有時稱為垂直度)。
Hot dipping 熱浸 (hot-dip galvanizing) A process of coating an iron, steel, or aluminium object with a thin layer of zinc by passing it through a bath of molten zinc at a temperature of about 460°C.
(熱浸鍍鋅)通過使鐵、鋼或鋁物體通過溫度約為460°C的熔融鋅浴,在鐵、鋼或鋁物體上鍍上一層薄薄的鋅層的工藝。
Energy losses (Unit kJ) 能量損失(單位kJ) A commonly-used misnomer in view of the conservation-ofenergy principle, but used to mean energy converted into forms that are not used in a process, for example thermal energy from a heat engine dissipated to the surroundings, or produced by friction in a machine, or by surface drag.
從能量守恒原理來看,這是一個常用的術語錯誤,但可以用于表示轉換為過程中未使用的形式的能量,例如,從熱機散發到周圍環境的熱能,或由機器中的摩擦或表面阻力產生的熱能。
Nut thickness 螺母厚度 The nut thickness shall be the overall distance measured parallel to the axis of nut, from the top of the nut to the bearing surface, and shall include the thickness of the washer face where provided.
螺母厚度應為平行于螺母軸線測量的從螺母頂部到軸承表面的總距離,還應包括墊圈表面的厚度。
Coextrusion 復合擠壓 The simultaneous extrusion through the same die of two or more materials in combination.
通過同一模具同時擠出兩種或多種材料的組合。
Maximum load (Pmax) 最大負載(Pmax) (1) The load having the highest algebraic value in the load cycle. Tensile loads are considered positive and compressive loads negative. (2)Used to determine the strength of a structural member; the load that can be borne before failure is apparent.
(1)負載循環中具有最高代數值的負載。拉伸荷載視為正荷載,壓縮荷載視為負荷載。(2)用于確定結構構件的強度;失效前可承受的載荷是明顯的。
B-basis B-基礎 Mechanical property value above which at least 90% of the population of values is expected to fall, with a confidence of 95%.
機械性能值超過該值時,至少90%的值預計會下降,置信度為95%。
Radiosity (J) (Unit W/m2) 輻射度(J)(單位W/m2) The total radiation leaving a given surface per unit area, including emitted, reflected, and transmitted radiation.
每單位面積離開給定表面的總輻射,包括發射、反射和透射輻射。
Ferritic stainless steels 鐵素體不銹鋼 Ferritic stainless steels have the ferrite (BCC) crystal structure and contain 10–28% chromium and typically 0.1–0.35% carbon (all in wt%). They are magnetic and can be hardened by cold working. They have good to moderate mechanical properties, good oxidation and corrosion resistance at elevated temperatures, and susceptibility to embrittlement at temperatures between 400 and 540°C. Used for turbine parts, hightemperature valves, automotive exhaust components, and nuclear reactor core components.
鐵素體不銹鋼具有鐵素體(BCC)晶體結構,含有10-28%的鉻,通常含有0.1-0.35%的碳(均為重量%)。它們具有磁性,可通過冷加工硬化。它們具有良好至中等的機械性能,在高溫下具有良好的抗氧化性和耐腐蝕性,在400至540°C的溫度下易脆化。用于渦輪零件、高溫閥、汽車排氣部件和核反應堆堆芯部件。
Stove bolt 爐用螺栓 This bolt has been so named because of its use in stove building. It is made in a number of different forms, either with a round button, or flat countersunk head, the head having a slot for a screwdriver and the threaded end being provided with a square or hexagon nut.
這種螺栓因其在爐灶建筑中的用途而得名。它有多種不同的形式,有圓形按鈕或平沉頭,頭部有螺絲刀槽,螺紋端有方形或六角螺母。
Specific weight (γ) (Unit N/m3) 比重(γ)(單位:N/m3) The weight per unit volume of a substance: if W is the weight of a volume of the substance, ρ is its density, and g is the acceleration due to gravity, γ = W/ = ρg.
物質單位體積的重量:W是物質體積的重量,ρ是其密度,g是重力引起的加速度,γ=W/=ρg。
Stress wave 應力波 An unbalanced force, such as an impact, applied at one location in a body sets the material there into vibration that is transmitted to adjacent elements and ultimately to all parts of the body in the form of stress waves or wave packets.
施加在物體某個位置的不平衡力(如沖擊力)會使物體中的材料產生振動,并以應力波或波包的形式傳遞到相鄰元件,最終傳遞到物體的所有部位。
Available head (Unit m) 可用水頭(單位米) In a hydroelectric power system, the difference between the vertical height of the water level in the supply reservoir above the turbine inlet less the head loss due to friction and fittings in the duct leading to the turbine.
在水力發電系統中,水輪機入口上方供水水庫中水位垂直高度之間的差減去由于通向渦輪機的管道中的摩擦和配件造成的水頭損失。
Finish annealing 精制退火 A subcritical annealing treatment applied to cold-worked low- or medium-carbon steel. Finish annealing, which is a compromise treatment, lowers residual stresses, thereby minimizing the risk of distortion in machining while retaining most of the benefits to machinability contributed by cold working. Compare with final annealing.
適用于冷加工低碳鋼或中碳鋼的亞臨界退火處理。與最終退火相比,精加工退火是一種折衷處理,可降低殘余應力,從而最大限度地降低加工中的變形風險,同時保留冷加工對可加工性的大部分好處。
Standardization 標準化 1. National and international agreements for design, manufacture, materials, performance, practices, requirements, strength, etc. which ensure common results wherever an item is made and wherever used. 2. The manufacture of components so that interchangeability of parts during assembly of new, or repair of old, items is possible without ‘fitting’.
1.關于設計、制造、材料、性能、慣例、要求、強度等的國家和國際協議,確保在任何地方制造和使用物品都能產生共同結果。2.部件的制造,以便在裝配新部件或維修舊部件時,無需“裝配”即可實現部件的互換性。
Vapour–pressure curve 蒸汽壓力曲線 For a pure substance, the curve of saturation pressure plotted vs saturation temperature.
對于純物質,繪制了飽和壓力與飽和溫度的曲線。
Grip length 夾緊長度 Combined thickness of all the things clamped together by the bolt and nut, including washers, gaskets, and joint members.
由螺栓和螺母夾緊在一起的所有部件的總厚度,包括墊圈、墊圈和接頭構件。
Lead of thread 螺紋導程 On a single threaded screw, the distance the screw or nut advances in one complete revolution.
在單螺紋螺釘上,螺釘或螺母在一整圈中前進的距離。
Burning 燃燒化 (1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. See overheating, grain-boundary liquation. (2) In grinding, getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening.
(1)通過加熱導致初期熔化或晶間氧化而永久損壞金屬或合金。參見過熱、晶界液化。(2)在磨削過程中,使工件熱到足以引起變色或通過回火或硬化改變微觀結構。
Microstrain 微應變 The strain over a gage length comparable to interatomic distances. These are the strains being averaged by the macrostrain measurement. Microstrain is not measurable by currently existing techniques. Variance of the microstrain distribution can, however, be measured by x-ray diffraction.
與原子間距離相當的標距上的應變。這些是通過宏觀應變測量得到的平均應變?,F有技術無法測量微應變。然而微應變分布的變化可以通過x射線衍射來測量。
Stroke 一擊 1. (stroke length) (Unit m) The linear distance between top dead centre and bottom dead centre of a piston in a reciprocating engine or mechanism. 2. The movement of a piston or plunger in a reciprocating machine to execute a particular function; for example, the exhaust stroke of an engine in which the exhaust gases are expelled from a cylinder.
1.(沖程長度)(單位:m)往復式發動機或機構中活塞上止點和下止點之間的線性距離。2.活塞或柱塞在往復式機器中執行特定功能的運動;例如發動機的排氣沖程,其中排氣從氣缸中排出。
Wrought iron 鍛鐵 A highly ductile (but anisotropic) type of iron containing elongated slag fibres that resulted from the method of manufacture in which excess carbon in pig iron was burnt and worked out. The yield strength is some 200 MPa, tensile strength 320 MPa, and reduction of area on a 50-mm gauge length up to 35%. Now replaced by steel.
一種高韌性(但各向異性)的鐵,含有細長的礦渣纖維,由生鐵中多余的碳燃燒和加工的制造方法產生。屈服強度約為200MPa,抗拉強度為320MPa,50mm標距上的面積縮減率高達35%?,F在被鋼所取代。
Wheel A solid disc, or a circular ring with spokes radiating from a central hub, either attached to an axle around which it revolves or which revolves with a rotating axle.
一個實心圓盤,或一個帶有輻條的圓環,輻條從一個中心轂放射出來,或附在一個繞其旋轉的軸上,或與一個旋轉軸一起旋轉。
Equation, long form 方程,長格式 An equation which relates the torque applied to a bolt to the preload created in it, and involves fastener geometry and the coefficient of friction between mating surfaces. A theoretical equation based on rigid body mechanics and the assumption that the geometry of the fastener is perfectly described by blueprint dimensions.
將施加在螺栓上的扭矩與螺栓中產生的預載荷聯系起來的方程,該方程涉及緊固件幾何形狀和配合面之間的摩擦系數?;趧傮w力學和緊固件幾何結構由藍圖尺寸完美描述的假設的理論方程。
Taper 變尖 A gradual, often linear, reduction in cross section or shape. A shaft or hole that gets gradually smaller toward one end.
橫截面或形狀的逐漸減小,通常是線性的。一端逐漸變小的軸或孔。
Critical load (Unit N) 臨界負荷(單位N) 1. The applied load that causes propagation of an existing crack of known length, and hence fracture of a component or structure. 2. The applied load that results in buckling of a column of given end fixity.
1.導致已知長度的現有裂紋擴展并因此導致部件或結構斷裂的施加荷載。2.導致具有給定端部固定性的柱屈曲的施加荷載。
British thermal unit (BTU, Btu) 英熱單位(BTU,Btu) An obsolete (non-SI) imperial unit of energy defined as the energy required to raise the temperature of one pound of pure water at 68°F by 1°F. The conversion to SI is 1 Btu = 1.055 056 × 103?J.
一種已被淘汰的(非SI)英制能量單位,定義為將68°F的一磅純水的溫度升高1°F所需的能量。轉換為SI為1Btu=1.055056×103J。
Wind pressure (Unit Pa) 風壓(單位Pa) The dynamic pressure associated with the wind. The static pressure of the wind is the atmospheric pressure.
與風相關的動態壓力。風的靜壓是大氣壓。
Assembly drawing 裝配圖紙 An engineering drawing that shows how parts are assembled to produce a component or a complete machine. It may include sections to show internal features, dimensions that are critical for assembly, manufacturing information, and part numbers.
顯示零件如何組裝以生產組件或整機的工程圖。它可能包括顯示內部特征、對裝配至關重要的尺寸、制造信息和零件編號的部分。
Grain growth 晶粒生長 An increase in the average size of the grains in polycrystalline metal, usually as a result of heating at elevated temperature.
多晶金屬中晶粒平均尺寸的增加,通常是高溫加熱的結果。
Homogeneous carburizing 均勻滲碳 Use of a carburizing process to convert a low-carbon ferrous alloy to one of uniform and higher carbon content throughout the section.
使用滲碳工藝將低碳鐵合金轉化為整個截面中碳含量均勻且較高的合金。
Teeth The projecting elements on gears, cutting tools, etc.
齒輪、刀具等上的突出元件。
Tear strength (Unit N/m) 撕裂強度(單位:N/m) The tensile force divided by the sheet thickness required to tear a pre-split sheet material at a specified rate. Particularly used for plastics, rubber, fabrics, and elastomers. Since the units are not those of stress but equivalent to J/m2, the units of toughness, the term ‘strength’ is strictly incorrect.
按規定速率撕裂預裂片材所需的張力除以片材厚度。特別用于塑料、橡膠、織物和彈性體。由于單位不是應力單位,而是相當于J/m2,韌性單位,“強度”一詞是完全錯誤的。
Austenite-stabilizer 奧氏體穩定劑 Alloying element expanding the γ-phase field in the corresponding phase diagram, which manifests itself in a decrease of the A3?temperature and an increase of the A4?temperature in binary alloys Fe–M as well as in a decrease of A1?temperature in ternary alloys Fe–C–M (M is an alloying element). The solubility of austenite-stabilizers in ferrite is much lower than in austenite. Under the influence of austenite-stabilizers, austenite can become thermodynamically stable down to room temperature.
合金元素擴展了相應相圖中的γ相場,這表現為二元合金Fe-M中A3溫度的降低和A4溫度的升高,以及A1溫度的降低三元合金Fe–C–M(M是合金元素)。奧氏體穩定劑在鐵素體中的溶解度遠低于在奧氏體中的溶解度。在奧氏體穩定劑的影響下,奧氏體可以在低至室溫時變得熱力學穩定。
Ablation cooling 燒蝕冷卻 The cooling of a surface exposed to very high external gas temperature which causes the surface material to sublime, melt or decompose. The chemical process absorbs heat while the mass flow of material away from the surface blocks the heat flux from the hot gas.
冷卻暴露于非常高的外部氣體溫度的表面,導致表面材料升華、熔化或分解?;瘜W過程吸收熱量,而遠離表面的物質的質量流阻擋了來自熱氣體的熱通量。
Secondary stresses (Unit Pa) 二次應力(單位Pa) Stresses different from those induced by the major loading but nevertheless resulting from the major loads; for example, the hoop stresses that occur around the circumference of barrelled compression testpieces and forgings.
與主要荷載引起的應力不同,但主要荷載產生的應力;例如,桶裝壓縮試件和鍛件周圍產生的環向應力。
Hypereutectic alloy 過共晶合金 In an alloy system exhibiting a eutectic, any alloy whose composition has an excess of alloying element compared with the eutectic composition, and whose equilibrium microstructure contains some eutectic structure.
在呈現共晶的合金系統中,任何合金,其組成與共晶組成相比具有過量的合金元素,并且其平衡微觀結構包含一些共晶結構。
Twist 扭轉 The helix produced in a cylindrical component, such as a shaft, wire, tensioned cable, or rope, when one end is rotated relative to the other. Measured either as the number of turns per unit length, or by the helix angle (twist angle).
當一端相對于另一端旋轉時,在圓柱形部件(如軸、鋼絲、張緊電纜或繩索)中產生的螺旋。以每單位長度的圈數或螺旋角(扭曲角)測量。
Washer 墊圈 An annular disc of metal, rubber, plastic, ceramic, etc., placed between two surfaces in contact either to spread the load (for example, between a surface and a tightened nut or a bolt head), to provide a seal, or to separate or align components.
由金屬、橡膠、塑料、陶瓷等制成的環形圓盤,放置在兩個接觸面之間,以分散載荷(例如,在一個表面和擰緊的螺母或螺栓頭之間),提供密封,或分離或對齊部件。
Abradant 研磨劑 The differently sized grits of hard materials such as emery employed for grinding, polishing, etc. The abrasive grade is determined by the grit size (grit number) originally related to the hole sizes in wire sieves.
用于研磨、拋光等的硬質材料(例如金剛砂)的不同尺寸粒度。磨料等級由最初與金屬絲篩孔尺寸相關的粒度(粒度數)決定。
mechanical engineering 機械工業 That branch of engineering concerned with energy conversion, stress analysis, vibration, dynamics, and kinematics, especially applied to design (machine design, mechanical-engineering design).
與能量轉換、應力分析、振動、動力學和運動學有關的工程分支,尤其適用于設計(機器設計、機械工程設計)。
Stress 應力(單位Pa) The intensity of the internally distributed forces or components of forces that resist a change in the volume or shape of a material that is or has been subjected to external forces. Stress is expressed in force per unit area and is calculated on the basis of the original dimensions of the cross section of the specimen. Stress can be either direct (tension or compression)or shear. 1. Stress ‘at a point’ (i.e. over a volume of material that is very small compared with that of the component or structure) is the load per unit area for every face of an infinitesimal cube surrounding the point. 2. In fluid flow the stress tensor σij is the sum of an isotropic part ?pδij, δij being the Kronecker delta, having the same form as the stress tensor for a fluid at rest, p being the static pressure, and the non-isotropic, deviatoric stress tensor dij which is due entirely to the fluid motion.
內部分布力或力分量的強度,這些力或力的分量抵抗正在或已經受到外力的材料的體積或形狀的變化。應力以單位面積的力表示,并根據試樣橫截面的原始尺寸計算。應力可以是直接(拉伸或壓縮)或剪切。1.“在一點”的應力(即在與組件或結構相比非常小的材料體積上)是圍繞該點的無限小立方體的每個面的單位面積載荷。2. 在流體流動中,應力張量σij是各向同性部分-pδij的總和,δij是Kroneckerδ,具有與靜止流體的應力張量相同的形式,p是靜壓,非各向同性, 偏應力張量 dij 完全由流體運動引起。
Stabilizing treatment 穩定化處理 (1) Before finishing to final dimensions, repeatedly heating a ferrous or nonferrous part to or slightly above its normal operating temperature and then cooling to room temperature to ensure dimensional stability in service. (2) Transforming retained austenite in quenched hardenable steels, usually by cold treatment. (3) Heating a solution-treated stabilized grade of austenitic stainless steel to 870 to 900 °C (1600 to 1650 °F) to precipitate all carbon as TiC, NbC, or TaC so that sensitization is avoided on subsequent exposure to elevated temperature.
(1)在精加工至最終尺寸之前,反復加熱含鐵或非鐵零件至或略高于其正常工作溫度,然后冷卻至室溫,以確保使用中的尺寸穩定性。(2)在淬火可淬硬鋼中轉變殘余奧氏體,通常通過冷處理。(3)將固溶處理的穩定等級奧氏體不銹鋼加熱至870至900°C(1600至1650°F),使所有碳沉淀為TiC、NbC或TaC,從而避免在隨后暴露于高溫時敏化。
Population 集合 The hypothetical collection of all possible test specimens that could be prepared in the specified way from the material under consideration. Also known as universe.
從所考慮的材料中以規定方式制備的所有可能試樣的假設集合。也稱為體系。
Stress distribution 應力分布 The manner in which tensile, compressive, and shear stresses are distributed within a loaded body, indicated by loci of constant stress.
拉應力、壓應力和剪應力在受載物體內的分布方式,由恒定應力軌跡表示。
Thermocouple 熱電偶 A device for measuring temperature, consisting of lengths of two dissimilar metals or alloys that are electrically joined at one end and connected to a voltage-measuring instrument at the other end. When one junction is hotter than the other, a thermal electromotive force is produced that is roughly proportional to the difference in temperature between the hot and cold junctions.
一種測量溫度的裝置,由兩種不同的金屬或合金組成,一端電連接,另一端與電壓測量儀相連。當一個結比另一個結更熱時,產生的熱電動勢大致與熱結和冷結之間的溫差成比例。
International Bureau of Weights and Measures 國際度量衡局IBWM (BIPM, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) The intergovernmental organization which has the mandate to provide the basis for a single, coherent system of measurements, traceable to the International System of Units.
(BIPM,國際計量局)政府間組織,其任務是為可追溯到國際單位制的單一、一致的計量系統提供基礎。
Tightness, acceptable 密封性,可接受的 Wholly leak-free joints are impossible, at least if the contained fluid is a gas, so it has been proposed that the design of a gasketed joint should start with the selection of an ‘‘acceptable’’ leak rate. The designer would dimension bolts and joint members so that the actual leak rate would never exceed this. Three standard levels of tightness have been proposed as well.
至少在所含流體為氣體的情況下,完全無泄漏的接頭是不可能的,因此有人建議,墊圈接頭的設計應從選擇“可接受”的泄漏率開始。設計師將確定螺栓和接頭構件的尺寸,以便實際泄漏率永遠不會超過此值。還提出了三種標準的密封性等級。
Bolt length 螺栓長度 The bolt length shall be the distance measured parallel to the axis of the product from the bearing surface of the head to the extreme end of the bolt including point.
螺栓長度應為平行于產品軸線測量的從頭部的支承面到包括點在內的螺栓末端的距離。
True stress (σ) (Unit Pa) 真應力(σ)(單位Pa) The value obtained by dividing the load applied to a member at a given instant by the cross-sectional area over which it acts. Compare with engineering stress. The applied load on a test specimen divided by the current cross-section area over which it acts. σ = s expε where s is the engineering stress given by the applied load divided by the original cross-section area over which it acts, and ε is the true strain.
通過將給定時刻施加在構件上的荷載除以其作用的橫截面積而獲得的值。與工程應力相比。施加在試樣上的荷載除以其作用的當前橫截面積。σ=s expε,其中s是由施加荷載除以其作用的原始橫截面面積得出的工程應力,ε是真實應變。
Air-hardening steel 空氣硬化鋼 A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. The terms should be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly large sections, about 2 in. (50 mm) or more in diameter. Same as self-hardening steel.
一種鋼,含有足夠的碳和其他合金元素,可以在空氣或其他氣體介質中從高于其轉變范圍的溫度冷卻過程中完全硬化。這些術語應僅限于能夠通過在相當大的截面(直徑約2英寸(50毫米)或更大)中通過空氣冷卻而硬化的鋼。與自硬鋼相同。
Total carbon 總碳 The sum of the free and combined carbon (including carbon in solution) in a ferrous alloy.
鐵合金中游離碳和結合碳(包括溶液中的碳)的總和。
Elasticity 彈性 The property of a material by virtue of which deformation caused by stress disappears on removal of the stress. A perfectly elastic body completely recovers its original shape and dimensions after release of stress.
一種材料的特性,通過這種特性,由應力引起的變形在去除應力后消失。完全彈性體在應力釋放后完全恢復其原始形狀和尺寸。
Crack size (a) 裂紋尺寸(a) A lineal measure of a principal planar dimension of a crack. This measure is commonly used in the calculation of quantities descriptive of the stress and displacement fields. In practice, the value of crack size is obtained from procedures for measurement of physical crack size, original crack size, or effective crack size, as appropriate to the situation under consideration.
裂紋主平面尺寸的線性度量。這種測量通常用于計算描述應力場和位移場的量。在實踐中,裂紋尺寸的值是通過測量物理裂紋尺寸、原始裂紋尺寸或有效裂紋尺寸的程序獲得的,視情況而定。
Torque reaction (Unit N.m) 扭矩反作用力(單位:N.m) The torque needed to counteract an applied torque. For example, in a helicopter with a single main rotor, the tendency of the fuselage to rotate in the opposite direction to the rotor.
抵消施加扭矩所需的扭矩。例如,在具有單個主旋翼的直升機中,機身沿與旋翼相反的方向旋轉的趨勢。
Steam gauge 汽壓表 A pressure gauge used to measure gauge pressure in a line, boiler, cylinder, or other device operating with steam.
一種壓力表,用于測量管道、鍋爐、汽缸或其他與蒸汽一起工作的裝置中的表壓。
Morse taper 莫氏錐度 A self holding, standard taper largely used on drilling tools, drilling machine spindles, and some lathes.
一種自持式標準錐度,主要用于鉆孔工具、鉆床主軸和一些車床。
Screw pair 螺旋副 Two links connected together to form a kinematic pair, in which the contacting surfaces are screw threads, so that their relative motion consists of rotation and sliding.
兩個連桿連接在一起形成運動副,其中接觸面為螺紋,因此它們的相對運動包括旋轉和滑動。
Relative humidity (?) 相對濕度(ψ) The ratio or percentage of the actual mass of moisture in a given volume of air at a given temperature to the maximum possible mass of moisture at the same temperature.
給定溫度下給定體積空氣中的實際水分質量與相同溫度下的最大可能水分質量的比率或百分比。
Sliding-vane compressor 滑片壓縮機 (rotary-vane compressor, vane compressor) A rotary compressor in which gas is compressed as the spaces between spring-loaded sliding vanes held in an offset rotor reduce as the rotor revolves within a cylindrical housing.
(旋轉葉片壓縮機,葉片壓縮機)一種旋轉式壓縮機,當轉子在圓柱形外殼內旋轉時,偏置轉子中的彈簧加載滑動葉片之間的空間減小,從而壓縮氣體。
Torque converter 變矩器 A turbomachine used for torque amplification consisting of an impeller, a turbine, and a reaction member. Applications include motor-vehicle transmissions.
用于扭矩放大的渦輪機,由葉輪、渦輪機和反作用構件組成。應用包括機動車變速器。
Brayton cycle 布雷頓循環 (Joule cycle) An air standard cycle that is the ideal cycle for a gasturbine engine. As shown on the diagram of pressure (p) ?s specific volume (?), it consists of four internally reversible processes: isentropic compression in a compressor (1–2), isobaric heat addition in a combustor (2–3), isentropic expansion in a turbine (3–4) and isobaric heat rejection. The cycle can be extended to include regeneration, reheating, and intercooling.
(焦耳循環)一種空氣標準循環,是燃氣輪機發動機的理想循環。循環可以擴展到包括再生、再熱和中冷。
Transmission 傳輸 The system that transmits power and torque from a power source; for example a shaft, belts and pulleys, or a gear train. In the case of a motor vehicle, it includes the gearbox, clutch, propeller shaft, differential and final drive shafts.
從動力源傳輸功率和扭矩的系統;例如軸、皮帶和滑輪或齒輪系。對于機動車輛,包括變速箱、離合器、傳動軸、差速器和終傳動軸。
Thermodynamic state 熱力學狀態 The condition of a system or working fluid according to its properties.
系統或工作流體根據其性質的狀態。
Linear (tensile or compressive) strain 線性(拉伸或壓縮)應變 The change per unit length due to force in an original linear dimension. An increase in length is considered positive.
由于原始線性尺寸中的力,每單位長度的變化。長度的增加被認為是正的。
Combined carbon 復合碳 The part of the total carbon in steel or cast iron that is present as other than free carbon.
鋼或鑄鐵中總碳中除游離碳外的部分。
Fastener manufacturer 緊固件制造商 An organization that fabricates raw steel into a fastener meeting specified standards.
將生鋼加工成符合規定標準的緊固件的組織。
Celsius 攝氏度 The temperature scale based on the freezing point of water (0oC) and the boiling point of water (100oC). The interval between these points is divided into 100 degrees. The scale was devised by Anders Celsius.
基于水的冰點(0oC)和水的沸點(100oC)的溫標。這些點之間的間隔被劃分為100度。這個比例是由安德斯·攝氏設計的。
X-ray thickness gauge X射線厚度計 A device comprising an X-ray source and a detector used to determine the thickness of material in sheet or plate form, including metals, paper, plastics, rubber, and ceramics.
一種由X射線源和探測器組成的裝置,用于測定片狀或平板狀材料的厚度,包括金屬、紙張、塑料、橡膠和陶瓷。
Plane-stress fracture toughness (Kc) 平面應力斷裂韌性(Kc) In linear-elastic fracture mechanics, the value of the crack-extension resistance at the instability condition determined from the tangency between the R-curve and the critical crack-extension force curve of the specimen.
在線彈性斷裂力學中,由試樣的R曲線和臨界裂紋擴展力曲線之間的切線確定的不穩定條件下裂紋擴展阻力的值。
Compression pressure (Unit Pa) 壓縮壓力(單位Pa) The pressure produced in a cylinder of a piston engine by compression of air in the absence of fuel.
在沒有燃料的情況下通過壓縮空氣在活塞發動機的氣缸中產生的壓力。
Minimum stress (Smin) 最小應力(Smin) In fatigue, the stress having the lowest algebraic value in the cycle, tensile stress being considered positive and compressive stress negative.
在疲勞中,循環中代數值最低的應力,拉應力被視為正應力,壓應力為負應力。
Coefficient of restitution (e) 回彈系數(e) The ratio of the relative velocity of two colliding bodies after collision to that before. In perfectly elastic collisions e = 1; when all the impact energy is dissipated, e = 0.
兩個碰撞體在碰撞后與碰撞前的相對速度之比。在完全彈性碰撞中e=1;當所有的沖擊能量都消散時,e=0。
Net weight (Unit N) 凈重(單位:N) The difference between the gross weight of any container including its contents and the tare weight of the empty container.
任何容器(包括其內容物)的毛重與空容器皮重之間的差值。
Dimensional stability 尺寸穩定性 Ability of a plastic part to retain the precise shape in which it was molded, fabricated, or cast.
塑料零件保持其成型、制造或鑄造時的精確形狀的能力。
Free carbon 游離碳 The part of the total carbon in steel or cast iron that is present in elemental form as graphite or temper carbon. Contrast with combined carbon.
鋼或鑄鐵中總碳中以石墨或回火碳等元素形式存在的部分。與結合碳形成對比。
Wing nut 蝶形螺母 A nut having two opposite protruding wings to permit hand tightening.
一種螺母,有兩個相對突出的翼片,可以用手擰緊。
Serrations 鋸齒 A row of notches or tooth-like projections on an edge or surface. On an engineering drawing, serrations on the surface of a circular component are shown over about 60° of arc.
邊緣或表面上的一排凹口或齒狀突起。在工程圖紙上,圓形部件表面的鋸齒超過約60°的圓弧。
Annealing 退火 A generic term denoting a treatment, consisting of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily to soften metallic materials, but also to simultaneously produce desired changes in other properties or in microstructure.
一個通用術語,表示一種處理,包括加熱并保持在合適的溫度,然后以合適的速率冷卻,主要用于軟化金屬材料,但也同時產生其他性能或微觀結構的所需變化。
Extensometer 引伸計 An instrument for measuring changes in length over a given gage length caused by application or removal of a force. Commonly used in tension testing of metal specimens. Any instrument which measures the change in length of a part as the part is loaded.
一種用于測量在給定標距上由施加或移除力引起的長度變化,在零件加載時測量零件長度變化的儀器。常用于金屬試樣的拉力試驗。
Athermal transformation 非熱變化 A reaction that proceeds without benefit of thermal fluctuations; that is, thermal activation is not required. In contrast, a reaction that occurs at constant temperature is an isothermal transformation; thermal activation is necessary in this case and the reaction proceeds as a function of time.
在沒有熱波動的情況下進行的反應;也就是說,不需要熱激活。相反,在恒溫下發生的反應是等溫轉變。在這種情況下,熱活化是必要的,并且反應作為時間的函數進行。
Pin expansion test 插頭膨脹試驗 A test for determining the ability of a tube to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses in it, made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of the tube, similar to flare test.
通過將錐形銷壓入管道開口端來確定管道膨脹能力或揭示其存在裂紋或其他縱向缺陷的試驗,類似于擴口試驗。
Pop rivet 拉釘 A hollow rivet that enables a connexion to be made from one side only of an assembly.
一種空心鉚釘,使連接只能從組件的一側進行。
Centi (c) 厘(c) An SI unit prefix indicating a multiplier of 0.01; thus centimetre is a unit of length equal to one one-hundredth of a metre or 10 mm.
表示乘數0.01的SI單位前綴;因此厘米是長度單位,等于一米的百分之一或10毫米。
Autonomous energy system 自主能源系統 (stand-alone energy system) A sole source of electricity, usually small-scale, for applications remote from a grid, especially with energy storage in the system. Hydroelectric, photovoltaic, wind-power and other renewable systems are well suited to stand-alone applications.
(獨立能源系統)一種唯一的電力來源,通常是小規模的,用于遠離電網的應用,尤其是系統中的能量存儲。水電、光伏、風力和其他可再生能源系統非常適合獨立應用。
Positive-displacement compressor 容積式壓縮機 Any type of compressor, including piston and rotary-screw types, that delivers a fixed volume of gas at high pressure per unit time. A positive-displacement pump delivers a fixed volume of fluid, usually a liquid, per unit time.
任何類型的壓縮機,包括活塞式和旋轉螺桿式,在單位時間內以高壓輸送固定體積的氣體。容積泵每單位時間輸送固定體積的流體,通常為液體。
Pressure (p) (Unit Pa) 壓力(p)(單位Pa) In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, the compressive force exerted by the fluid per unit area. The pressure exerted by a fluid on a surface acts normal to the surface.
在熱力學和流體力學中,每單位面積流體施加的壓縮力。流體施加在表面上的壓力垂直于表面。
T-bolt T型螺栓 A threaded bolt having a square or rectangular end which fits into the T slot of a machine table for clamping workpieces.
一種帶有方形或矩形端頭的螺栓,可嵌入機床工作臺的T形槽中,用于夾緊工件。
Tooth lock washers 帶齒鎖緊墊圈 These washers serve to lock fasteners, such as bolts and nuts, to the component parts of an assembly, or increase the friction between the fasteners and the assembly. They are designated in a manner similar to helical spring lock washers, and are available in carbon steel.
這些墊圈用于將緊固件(如螺栓和螺母)鎖定到組件的零部件上,或增加緊固件與組件之間的摩擦力。它們的設計方式類似于螺旋彈簧鎖緊墊圈,可采用碳鋼。
Acceleration due to gravity 重力加速度 (acceleration of free fall, gravitational acceleration, g) (Unit m/s2) The acceleration of a freely-falling body in a vacuum, with a mean value at sea level of approximately 9.81 m/s2.
(自由落體加速度,重力加速度,g)(單位m/s2)自由落體在真空中的加速度,在海平面處的平均值約為9.81m/s2。
Computer vision 計算機視覺 The digitization and processing of optical images/patterns by computer in order to recognize parts, orientation, etc. in manufacturing.
通過計算機對光學圖像/圖案進行數字化和處理,以在制造過程中識別零件、方向等。
Tightness 緊密度 A measure of the mass leak rate from a gasketed joint.
墊圈接頭質量泄漏率的測量值。
Torsion-bar suspension 扭桿懸架 A type of motor-vehicle suspension in which one end of a torsion bar is rigidly fixed to the chassis while the other carries a lever to which are attached the components that carry a wheel. In a torsion-beam suspension, a beam connects the wheels on either side of the vehicle.
一種汽車懸架,其中扭力桿的一端剛性固定在底盤上,而另一端帶有一個杠桿,杠桿上連接著承載車輪的部件。在扭轉梁懸架中,梁連接車輛兩側的車輪。
Mechanical vibration 機械振動 The motion of a particle or body which oscillates about a position of equilibrium.
圍繞平衡位置擺動的粒子或物體的運動。
Rupture stress 斷裂應力 The stress at failure. Also known as breaking stress.
失效時的應力。也稱為破裂應力。
Chafing fatigue 磨損疲勞 Fatigue damage initiated in a surface damaged by rubbing against another body.
因與另一個物體摩擦而損壞的表面引起的疲勞損壞。
Quench cracking 淬火開裂 Fracture of a metal during quenching from elevated temperature. Most frequently observed in hardened carbon steel, alloy steel, or tool steel parts of high hardness and low toughness. Cracks often emanate from fillets, holes, corners, or other stress raisers and result from high stresses due to the volume changes accompanying transformation to martensite.
高溫淬火時金屬斷裂。在高硬度和低韌性的硬化碳鋼、合金鋼或工具鋼零件中最常見。裂紋通常來自圓角、孔、角部或其他應力集中區,并由伴隨馬氏體轉變的體積變化引起的高應力引起。
Mohr–Coulomb fracture criterion Mohr–Coulomb斷裂準則 A fracture criterion, primarily for brittle materials, according to which failure occurs when the stress at a point in a material falls outside the envelope created by the Mohr’s circles for uniaxial tensile strength and uniaxial compressive strength.
一種斷裂準則,主要適用于脆性材料,根據該準則,當材料中某一點的應力落在單軸抗拉強度和單軸抗壓強度的莫爾圓所形成的包絡線之外時,就會發生斷裂。
Total combustion air (Unit kg/s) 總燃燒空氣(單位:kg/s) 1. The combination of the stoichiometric flow of air required for combustion together with any excess air. 2. The flow of fresh air into a boiler plus any flue gas recirculated.
1.燃燒所需的化學計量空氣流與任何過量空氣的組合。2.進入鍋爐的新鮮空氣流加上再循環的任何煙氣。
Continuous-type furnace 連續式爐 A furnace used for heat treating materials that progress continuously through the furnace, entering one door and being discharged from another. See belt furnac, direct-fired tunnel-type furnac, rotary retort furnace, shaker-hearth furnace.
一種用于熱處理材料的爐子,該爐子連續通過爐子,進入一個門并從另一個門排出。參見帶式高爐、直燃隧道式高爐、旋轉罐式爐、振動爐。
Bias pressure (Unit Pa) 偏壓(單位Pa) In a fluidic device controlled by pressure difference, the magnitude of that difference.
在由壓力差控制的流體裝置中,該差值的大小。
Galvanic protection 電流保護 The coating on a fastener is said to provide galvanic protection if it is more anodic than the fastener and will, therefore, be destroyed instead of the fastener. Zinc plate (galvanizing) provides galvanic protection to steel fasteners, for example.
如果緊固件上的涂層比緊固件更具陽極性,則據說它可以提供電流保護,將會因此被破壞而不是緊固。例如,鋅板(鍍鋅)為鋼緊固件提供電流保護。
Degradation of energy 能源退化 Conversion of energy into forms of lower usefulness due to irreversibilities in energy transfer and conversion processes. The increase in entropy can be regarded as a measure of the degradation of energy.
由于能量轉移和轉換過程中的不可逆性,將能量轉換為低效形式。熵的增加可以看作是能量退化的量度。
Bioenergy 生物能源 1. Energy derived from materials such as purpose-grown energy crops, including sugar cane, maize, wheat, and rice, as well as wood, straw, and animal waste, including sewage, manure, and animal litter. 2. A term sometimes used to cover biomass and biofuels together.
1.來自特定種植的能源作物(包括甘蔗、玉米、小麥和大米)以及木材、稻草和動物糞便(包括污水、糞便和動物垃圾)等材料的能源。2.有時用于同時涵蓋生物質和生物燃料的術語。
Bearing failure 軸承故障 A failure that occurs in a riveted or bolted joint when the transverse load divided by the bearing area results in a stress that leads to permanent plastic deformation.
當橫向載荷除以承載面積產生導致永久塑性變形的應力時,鉚接或螺栓連接中發生的失效。
Countersinking 埋頭孔 The flaring out of the rim of a drilled hole to form a truncated conical depression to receive a screw having a conical head, thus giving a flush fitting.
從鉆孔的邊緣向外張開以形成截錐形凹陷,以容納具有錐形頭的螺釘,從而提供齊平的配件。
Complete decarburization 完全脫碳 Decarburization with sufficient carbon loss to show only clearly defined ferrite grains under metallographic examination.
脫碳,具有足夠的碳損失,以在金相檢查下僅顯示清晰定義的鐵素體晶粒。
Freezing range 凍融范圍 That temperature range between liquidus and solidus temperatures in which molten and solid constituents coexist.
熔融和固體成分共存的液相線和固相線溫度之間的溫度范圍。
Frequency 頻率 (temporal frequency, f) (Unit Hz) The number of cycles per second in an oscillation or the repetition rate for a cyclic process.
(時間頻率,f)(單位Hz)振蕩中每秒的周期數或循環過程的重復率。
Cheese head 圓柱頭 A cylindrical head on a screw or bolt. For driving, it may be slotted, or hexagonally recessed.
螺釘或螺栓上的圓柱頭。為了驅動,它可以是開槽的,也可以是六角形的。
Degree (°) 度數(°) A measure of plane angle such that 1° is 1/360 of a complete revolution and equal to π/180 rad.
平面角度的一種度量,使得1°是一整圈的1/360,等于π/180弧度。
Pressure-relief valve 減壓閥 A valve that limits the maximum pressure in a pressure vessel or fluid-power system to a specified level.
將壓力容器或流體動力系統中的最大壓力限制在規定水平的閥門。
Fastener with waisted shank 帶腰柄的緊固件 Finished fastener with a shank diameter of ds < d2.
柄徑ds
Hexagon nut 六角螺母 A nut having six sides and shaped like a hexagon.
六邊形的螺母。
Precipitation hardening 沉淀硬化 Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent from a supersaturated solid solution.
因成分從過飽和固溶體沉淀而導致的硬化。
Deviation 偏差 The difference between the actual value and the desired value of a controlled variable.
受控變量的實際值與期望值之間的差值。
Wallner lines Wallner線 A distinct pattern of intersecting sets of parallel lines, usually producing a set of V-shaped lines, sometimes observed when viewing brittle fracture surfaces at high magnification in an electron microscope. Wallner lines are attributed to interaction between a shock wave and a brittle crack front propagating at high velocity. Sometimes Wallner lines are misinterpreted as fatigue striations.
一組相交的平行線的獨特圖案,通常產生一組V形線,有時在電子顯微鏡下高倍觀察脆性斷裂表面時觀察到。Wallner線歸因于高速傳播的沖擊波和脆性裂紋前沿之間的相互作用。有時Wallner線被誤解為疲勞條紋。
Tension joint 張力接頭 A joint which is primarily subjected to loads acting more or less parallel to the axes of the bolts.
主要承受或多或少平行于螺栓軸線的載荷的接頭。
Crack 裂縫 A thin fissure-like defect in a component or structure across which material continuity is lost and which reduces the strength of the body.
部件或結構中的細裂縫狀缺陷,材料連續性喪失并降低了身體的強度。
Stress relaxation 應力松弛 The slow decrease in stress level within a part (e.g., a bolt) which is heavily loaded under constant deflection conditions. A ‘‘cousin’’ to creep, which is a slow change in geometry under constant stress conditions. The time-dependent decrease in stress in a solid under constant strain at constant temperature due to creep. The stress-relaxation behavior of a metal is usually shown in a stress-relaxation curve.
在恒定撓曲條件下,零件(如螺栓)內的應力水平緩慢降低,該零件承受重荷載。蠕變的“表親”,是在恒定應力條件下幾何結構的緩慢變化。在恒定溫度下,由于蠕變,固體在恒定應變下的應力隨時間變化的減小。金屬的應力松弛行為通常顯示在應力松弛曲線中。
Shear modulus (G) 剪切模量(G) The ratio of shear stress to the corresponding shear strain for shear stresses below the proportional limit of the material. Values of shear modulus are usually determined by torsion testing. Also known as modulus of rigidity.
對于低于材料比例極限的剪切應力,剪切應力與相應剪切應變之比。剪切模量值通常通過扭轉試驗確定。也稱為剛度模量。
Hot quenching 熱淬火 An imprecise term used to cover a variety of quenching procedures in which a quenching medium is maintained at a prescribed temperature above 70 °C (160 °F)
一個不精確的術語,用于涵蓋各種淬火程序,其中淬火介質規定溫度保持在70°C(160°F)以上。
Nipple 噴嘴 A device containing a non-return valve screwed into a lubrication point through which grease may be introduced, for example into a bearing.
一種包含止回閥的裝置,該止回閥擰入潤滑點,通過該潤滑點可以將潤滑脂引入,例如軸承中。
Pitch-circle diameter (Unit m) 節圓直徑(單位:m) The diameter of the circle (the pitch circle) centred on a component’s axis, around which holes or bolts are equally spaced.
以部件軸為中心的圓(節圓)的直徑,孔或螺栓圍繞其等距分布。
Acoustics 聲學 The science and engineering of sound; its production, propagation, control, interaction with materials, etc.
聲音科學與工程;它的產生、傳播、控制、與材料的相互作用等。
Damage tolerance 損傷容限 (defect tolerance) A design philosophy that takes into account initial imperfections, crack-growth rates and conditions at final fracture, and uses fracture mechanics to demonstrate that cracks should not grow to their critical length within the design life (or at least should be capable of ready detection).
(缺陷公差)考慮初始缺陷、裂紋擴展速率和最終斷裂條件的設計理念,并使用斷裂力學證明裂紋不應在設計壽命內增長到其臨界長度(或至少應能夠隨時檢測)。
Absolute value error 絕對值誤差 The magnitude of the error dlsregarding the algebraic sign, or, for a vectorial error, disregarding its function.
關于代數符號的誤差幅度,或者,對于矢量誤差,不考慮其函數。
Observed value 觀測值 The particular value of a characteristic determined as a result of a test or measurement.
作為測試或測量結果確定的特性的特定值。
Torque pack 扭矩包 A geared wrench which multiplies input torque and provides a read-out of output torque. In effect, a combination of a Torque wrench and a Torque multiplier.
一種齒輪扳手,可增加輸入扭矩并提供輸出扭矩讀數。實際上,它是扭矩扳手和扭矩倍增器的組合。
Macrodeviation 宏觀偏差 Errors from–irregular surface departures from the design profile, often caused by lack of accuracy or stiffness of the machine system.
不規則表面偏離設計輪廓的誤差,通常是由于機器系統缺乏準確性或剛度造成的。
Furnace 1. A type of combustion chamber in which solid, liquid, or gaseous fuels are burned to supply hot gases to a boiler or other process plant. Examples include the firebox, boiler furnace (steam-generating furnace), hot-air furnace, oil-fired furnace, updraught furnace, and water-cooled furnace. 2. A chamber, sometimes having a controlled atmosphere or under vacuum (vacuum furnace), for heating and melting materials. Examples include the blast furnace, direct- and indirect-arc furnaces, the induction furnace (high-frequency furnace), muffle furnace, reverberatory furnace, and solar furnace.
1.一種燃燒室,其中燃燒固體、液體或氣體燃料以向鍋爐或其他工藝設備供應熱氣。示例包括燃燒室、鍋爐爐(蒸汽發生爐)、熱風爐、燃油爐、上升氣流爐和水冷爐。2.用于加熱和熔化材料的腔室,有時具有受控氣氛或真空(真空爐)。例如高爐、直接和間接電弧爐、感應爐(高頻爐)、馬弗爐、反射爐和太陽能爐。
Profilometer 輪廓儀 An instrument used to quantify the roughness of a surface. For a contact profilometer, a diamond stylus sweeps across the surface along a series of parallel lines. Noncontact profilometers use optical techniques to map the surface irregularities.
用于量化表面粗糙度的儀器。對于接觸式輪廓儀,鉆石觸針沿一系列平行線掃過表面。非接觸式輪廓儀使用光學技術繪制表面不規則。
Hydrogen damage 氫損傷 A general term for the embrittlement, cracking, blistering, and hydride formation that can occur when hydrogen is present in some metals.
當氫存在于某些金屬中時可能發生的脆化、開裂、起泡和氫化物形成的總稱。
Offset 偏移 The distance along the strain coordinate between the initial portion of a stress-strain curve and a line parallel to the initial portion that intersects the stress-strain curve at a value of stress (commonly 0.2%) that is used as a measure of the yield strength. Used for materials that have no obvious yield point.
應力-應變曲線的初始部分與平行于初始部分的線之間沿應變坐標的距離,該線以應力值(通常為0.2%)與應力-變形曲線相交,該應力值用作屈服強度的度量。用于沒有明顯屈服點的材料。
Corrosive wear 腐蝕磨損 Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is significant.
與環境發生顯著化學或電化學反應的磨損。
Stead’s brittleness 斯特德脆性 A condition of brittleness that causes transcrystalline fracture in the coarse grain structure that results from prolonged annealing of thin sheets of low-carbon steel previously rolled at a temperature below about 705 °C (1300 °F). The fracture usually occurs at about 45° to the direction of rolling.
一種脆性狀態,導致粗晶結構中發生穿晶斷裂,這是由于之前在低于約705°C(1300°F)的溫度下軋制的低碳鋼薄板經過長時間退火造成的。斷裂通常發生在與軋制方向約45°處。
Standard deviation (σ) 標準偏差(σ) A statistical term used to quantify the Scatter in a set of data points. If the standard deviation is small, most of the data points are ‘‘nearly equal.’’ A large deviation means less agreement. The most usual measure of the dispersion of observed values or results expressed as the positive square root of the variance. The square root of variance, a measure of the spread of data about the mean value.
用于量化一組數據點中分散度的統計術語。如果標準偏差很小,則大多數數據點“幾乎相等”大的偏差意味著更少的一致性。觀測值或結果離散度的最常用度量,表示為方差的正平方根。方差的平方根,衡量平均值的數據分布。
Temperature factor 溫度系數 A calibration constant used in ultrasonic measurement of bolt stress or strain. Accounts for the effects of thermal expansion and the temperature-induced change in the velocity of sound.
用于螺栓應力或應變超聲波測量的校準常數。說明了熱膨脹和溫度引起的聲速變化的影響。
Stress cycle 應力循環 The smallest segment of the stress-time function that is repeated periodically.
周期性重復的應力時間函數的最小段。
Rosette 玫瑰形的結 Strain gages arranged to indicate, at a single position, strain in three different directions.
應變計布置成在單個位置指示三個不同方向的應變。
Vibrometer 測振儀 A device used to measure the motion of a vibrating surface, typically using a contactless laser-based technique.
一種用于測量振動表面運動的裝置,通常使用非接觸激光技術。
Percent error 誤差百分比 For testing machines, the ratio, expressed as a percentage, of the error to the correct value of the applied load.
對于試驗機,以百分比表示的誤差與所施加載荷的正確值之比。
Coefficient of thermal expansion 熱膨脹系數 (1) Change in unit of length (or volume) accompanying a unit change of temperature, at a specified temperature. (2) The linear or volume expansion of a given material per degree rise of temperature, expressed at an arbitrary base temperature or as a more complicated equation applicable to a wide range.
(1) 單位長度(或體積)隨溫度單位變化的變化。(2) 給定材料每上升一度的線性或體積膨脹,在任意基礎溫度下表示,或作為適用于寬范圍的更復雜方程表示。
Finished hexagon bolts 精制六角螺栓 A washer faced or chamfered bearing surface with a close body tolerance.
頭下有墊圈面或倒角,尺寸公差小
Notch strength 缺口強度 The maximum load on a notched tensile-test specimen divided by the minimum cross-sectional area (the area at the root of the notch). Also known as notch tensile strength.
缺口拉伸試樣上的最大載荷除以最小橫截面積(缺口根部的面積)。也稱為缺口抗拉強度。
Pressure tap 測壓口 A small hole in the wall of a pipe or pressure vessel to which is attached a tube, the other end of which is connected to one side of a pressure transducer.
管子或壓力容器壁上的小孔,與管子相連,管子的另一端與壓力傳感器的一側相連。
Gear ratio 傳動比 For two gears in contact, the ratio of the number of teeth on the driving gear to that on the driven gear.
對于接觸的兩個齒輪,主動齒輪上的齒數與從動齒輪上的齒數之比。
Proof strength? (Unit Pa) 驗證強度(單位Pa) (proof stress, Rp, Rp,) The yield strength (offset yield strength) at some fixed value of the permanent strain given by the intersection of a line offset from, but parallel to, the elastic loading line and the engineering stress-engineering strain curve. The offset is arbitrary but is usually 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5% permanent strain (the proof strain). Used for materials which do not exhibit a sharply defined yield point. The notation Rp0.2?or Rp0.2?is employed for the 0.2% proof stress.
(驗證應力,Rp)在永久應變的某個固定值下的屈服強度(偏移屈服強度),由偏離但平行于彈性加載線的線與工程應力-工程應變曲線的交點給出。偏移是任意的,但通常為0.1、0.2或0.5%的永久應變(驗證應變)。用于沒有明確定義屈服點的材料。對于0.2%的驗證應力,采用符號Rp0.2。
Turn-of-nut 轉動螺母 Sometimes used to describe the general rotation of the nut (or bolt head) as the fastener is tightened. More often used to define a particular tightening procedure in which a fastener is first tightened with a preselected torque, and is then tightened further by giving the nut an additional, measured, turn such as ‘‘three flats’’ (180°).
有時用于描述緊固件擰緊時螺母(或螺栓頭)的總體旋轉。更常用于定義一種特定的緊固程序,在該程序中,首先以預選扭矩擰緊緊固件,然后通過使螺母額外轉動,如“三平面”(180°)進一步擰緊。
Second (s) 秒(s) The SI base unit of time equal to 9 192 631 770 times the period of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the caesium-133 atom.
SI基時間單位等于9192631770倍的輻射周期,對應于銫-133原子基態的兩個超精細能級之間的躍遷。
Displacement 移位 The distance that a chosen measurement point on a cracked specimen displaces normal to the crack plane as the crack grows.
隨著裂紋擴展,裂紋試樣上選定的測量點垂直于裂紋平面位移的距離。
Oxidation 氧化 (1) A reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a loss of electrons. (2) A corrosion reaction in which the corroded metal forms an oxide; usually applied to reaction with a gas containing elemental oxygen, such as air.
(1)因電子損失而導致價態增加的反應。(2)腐蝕反應,其中被腐蝕的金屬形成氧化物;通常用于與含有元素氧的氣體如空氣反應。
Transgranular fracture 穿晶斷裂 Fracture in crystalline materials where the path of cracking is predominantly across grains.
晶體材料中的斷裂,其中裂紋路徑主要跨越晶粒。
Power 力能 The rate of doing work or of producing or consuming energy. The unit of power is the watt, W, where 1 W = 1 N m/s.
做功或產生或消耗能量的速度。功率單位為瓦特,W,其中1W=1N m/s。
Captive nut 松脫螺母 A nut attached loosely or rigidly to a sheet member that is too thin to thread and which engages with a cap screw.
松脫地或剛性地連接到薄板構件上的螺母,該螺母太薄而無法擰入,并與帶帽螺釘接合。
Forging cracks 鍛造裂紋 This may occur during fastener manufacturing at the cutting or forging operations and are located on the top of the head or on the raised periphery of indented head bolts.
這可能發生在緊固件制造過程中的切削或鍛造操作中,并且位于頭部的頂部或帶鋸齒的頭部螺栓的凸起周邊上。
Screw compressor 螺桿壓縮機 A positive-displacement rotary compressor in which gas is progressively compressed by two intermeshing, counter-rotating, helical screws.
一種容積式旋轉壓縮機,其中氣體由兩個相互嚙合、反向旋轉的螺旋螺桿逐漸壓縮。
Concentrated solar power plant (CSP plant) 聚光太陽能發電廠(CSP發電廠) A power plant in which solar radiation is concentrated using mirrors or lenses, typically using parabolic trough mirrors which focus solar radiation on to receiver tubes along the trough’s focal line. In an alternative arrangement molten salt, heated by solar receivers mounted on a tower, is circulated through a steam generator.
使用鏡子或透鏡集中太陽輻射的發電廠,通常使用拋物面槽鏡,將太陽輻射沿著槽的焦線聚焦到接收管上。在另一種布置中,由安裝在塔上的太陽能接收器加熱的熔鹽通過蒸汽發生器循環。
Scoring 劃痕 In tribology, a severe form of wear characterized by the formation of extensive grooves and scratches in the direction of sliding.
在摩擦學中,一種嚴重的磨損形式,其特征是在滑動方向上形成大面積的凹槽和劃痕。
Verification 檢驗 Checking or testing an instrument to ensure conformance with a specification.
檢查或測試儀器以確保符合規范。
Cellular materials 蜂窩材料 There are three broad classes of materials that have a sponge-like structure containing many small closed or open (interlinked) pores or cells. Natural cellular materials include bone, cork, sponge, and wood, and have numerous well-known uses. Wide ranges of cellular plastics are produced using blowing or foaming agents, such as air, ammonium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, etc., to create pores during the processing of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers. Rigid foams have moderate compressive strength and can be moulded and machined.
有三大類材料具有海綿狀結構,包含許多小的封閉或開放(互連)孔或細胞。天然多孔材料包括骨骼、軟木、海綿和木材,有許多眾所周知的用途。使用發泡劑或發泡劑(如空氣、碳酸銨、碳酸氫鈉等)生產各種泡沫塑料,以在熱塑性或熱固性聚合物加工過程中產生孔隙。硬質泡沫具有中等抗壓強度,可模制和機加工。
Kiln An industrial oven for burning, baking, or drying.
用于燃燒、烘烤或干燥的工業烤箱。
Radiation pressure (Unit μPa) 輻射壓力(單位:μPa) The pressure exerted on a surface exposed to any form of electromagnetic radiation. If the radiation is absorbed, it is equal to the power-flux density divided by the speed of light.
施加在暴露于任何形式電磁輻射的表面上的壓力。如果輻射被吸收,它等于功率通量密度除以光速。
Collapse load (Unit N) 毀壞荷載(單位N) The applied load at which a structure becomes a mechanism owing to the formation of sufficient plastic hinges for collapse to occur.
由于形成足夠的塑性鉸鏈以發生坍塌,結構成為機制的施加載荷。
Cleavage 分裂 The tendency of a material to cleave or split along definite crystallographic planes.
材料沿特定晶面劈裂或分裂的趨勢。
Thread run-out 螺紋耗盡 That portion of the threads which are not cut or rolled full depth, but which provide the transition between full-depth threads and the body or head. Officially called thread washout or vanish, although the term run-out is more popular. (Run-out is officially reserved for rotational eccentricity, as defined by total indicator readings or the like.)
未全深度切割或軋制的螺紋部分,但提供全深度螺紋與主體或頭部之間的過渡。官方稱之為螺紋沖蝕或消失,但術語“耗盡”更為流行。(跳動是官方為旋轉偏心度保留的,由總指示器讀數等定義。)
Size dimension (Unit m) 尺寸范圍(單位:米) The specified value of a diameter, length, width, etc. of a feature required to specify the finished form of a component or assembly.
指定部件或組件的成品形狀所需的特征的直徑、長度、寬度等的指定值。
Corrosion cell 腐蝕電池 A natural ‘‘battery’’ formed when two metals having different electrical potentials (an Anode and a Cathode) are connected together in the presence of a liquid (the Electrolyte).
當兩種具有不同電勢的金屬(陽極和陰極)在液體(電解質)存在下連接在一起時形成的天然“電池”。
Transverse strain 橫向應變 Linear strain in a plane perpendicular to the loading axis of a specimen.
垂直于試樣加載軸的平面內的線性應變。
Steady pin 定位銷 A dowel, key, or pin that prevents a pulley from turning on its shaft.
防止滑輪在其軸上轉動的銷釘、鍵或銷。
Liquid nitriding 液體氮化 A method of surface hardening in which molten nitrogen-bearing, fused-salt baths containing both cyanides and cyanates are exposed to parts at subcritical temperatures.
一種表面硬化方法,其中含有氰化物和氰酸鹽的熔融含氮熔鹽浴在亞臨界溫度下暴露于零件。
Supercooling 過冷 Cooling below the temperature at which an equilibrium phase transformation can take place, without actually obtaining the transformation.
在沒有實際獲得相變的情況下,冷卻到可以發生平衡相變的溫度以下。
Screw feeder 螺旋給料機 A mechanism for handling bulk materials in which a rotating helicoidal screw moves the material axially forward. Similar to a screw conveyor, but required to discharge material at a controlled rate very accurately. It operates with the screw completely full.
一種用于處理散裝物料的機構,其中旋轉的螺旋螺桿使物料軸向向前移動。類似于螺旋輸送機,但需要以受控速率非常精確地排出物料。它在螺桿完全充滿的情況下運行。
Proportional limit 比例極限 The greatest stress a material is capable of developing without a deviation from straight-line proportionality between stress and strain.
材料能夠產生的最大應力不偏離應力和應變之間的直線比例。
Absolute viscosity 絕對粘度 A measure of the internal shear properties of fluids, expressed as the tangential force per unit area at either of two horizontal planes separated by one unit thickness of a given fluid, one of the planes being fixed and the other moving with unit velocity.
流體內部剪切特性的量度,表示為兩個水平面中的任何一個上的單位面積切向力,兩個水平面被給定流體的一個單位厚度隔開,其中一個平面固定,另一個以單位速度移動。
Temper 回火 (1) In heat treatment, reheating hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and increasing toughness. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. (2) In tool steels, temper is sometimes used, but inadvisedly, to denote the carbon content. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that cannot be hardened by heat treatment), the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure, mechanical properties, or reduction in area during cold working.
(1)在熱處理中,將硬化鋼或硬化鑄鐵重新加熱到共析溫度以下的溫度,以降低硬度和增加韌性。該工藝有時也適用于正火鋼。(2)在工具鋼中,有時使用回火來表示碳含量,但這是不恰當的。(3)在非鐵合金和一些鐵合金(不能通過熱處理硬化的鋼)中,通過機械或熱處理或兩者產生的硬度和強度,其特征是在冷加工過程中具有一定的結構、機械性能或面積減小。
Critical point 臨界點 (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure, phase or physical properties occurs. Same as transformation temperature. (2) In an equilibrium diagram, that specific value of composition, temperature and pressure, or combinations thereof, at which the phases of a heterogeneous system are in equilibrium.
(1) 晶體結構、相或物理性質發生變化的溫度或壓力。與轉變溫度相同。(2) 在平衡圖中,指組成、溫度和壓力或其組合的特定值,在該值下,多相體系的相處于平衡狀態。
Vibrograph 示振器 An instrument that records vibrations in a system over time.
記錄系統隨時間變化的振動的儀器。
Dynamic recovery 動態恢復 A process occurring in hot working of metals in which a fine subgrain structure forms within the elongated grains due to annihilation of dislocations due to easy cross slip and climb. It results in a lowering of the flow stress. Dynamic recovery, as opposed to dynamic recrystallization that occurs in hot working, occurs in metals of high stacking fault energy such as aluminum, αiron, and most bcc metals.
金屬熱加工中發生的一種過程,由于易于交叉滑動和攀爬,位錯湮滅,細長晶粒內形成細亞晶粒結構。這導致流動應力降低。與熱加工中發生的動態再結晶相反,動態回復發生在高層錯能金屬中,如鋁、α鐵和大多數bcc金屬。
Diffusion coefficient 擴散系數 A factor of proportionality representing the amount of substance diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time.
一個比例因子,表示在單位時間內通過單位濃度梯度擴散到單位面積上的物質量。
Freezing point 冰點 The temperature at which a substance changes phase (or state) from liquid to solid. The freezing point for most substances increases as pressure increases. The reverse process, from solid to liquid, is melting; melting point is the same as freezing point.
物質從液態變為固態的溫度。大多數物質的冰點隨著壓力的增加而增加。從固體到液體的逆過程是熔化;熔點與凝固點相同。
Intergranular cracking 沿晶斷裂 Cracking or fracturing that occurs between the grains or crystals in a polycrystalline aggregate. Also called intercrystalline cracking.
多晶聚集體中的晶?;蚓w之間發生的開裂或斷裂。也稱為晶間斷裂。
Centre line 中心線 1. In an engineering drawing, a line of symmetry. 2. An imaginary line along a pipe, duct, or shaft that defines an axis of symmetry. 3. An imaginary straight line parallel to the intended direction of a surface located such that the areas above and below the line and the real wavy (rough) surface cancel out.
1.在工程圖中,對稱線。2.沿著管道、管道或豎井定義對稱軸的假想線。3.一條平行于表面預期方向的假想直線,該直線上方和下方的區域與真實的波狀(粗糙)表面相抵消。
Transmissibility 傳遞率 The ratio of the transmitted force to the disturbing force for a system subjected to a vibratory disturbance. The ratio may also be defined in terms of displacements, velocities, or accelerations.
受到振動干擾的系統的傳遞力與干擾力之比。該比率也可以用位移、速度或加速度來定義。
Submerged-electrode furnace 浸入式電極爐 A furnace used for liquid carburizing of parts by heating molten salt baths with the use of electrodes submerged in the ceramic lining.
一種通過使用浸入陶瓷襯里中的電極加熱熔融鹽浴對零件進行液體滲碳的爐。
Oldham coupling 十字聯軸節 (double-slider coupling) A device for connecting a pair of misaligned parallel shafts, on the end of each of which are flanges having diametral tenons (tongues) that engage with matching slots spaced at 90° in an intermediate disc. As the coupling rotates, the disc compensates for shaft offset by sliding along each tenon in turn. Low-friction surfaces are requisite and the disc is often made of a polymer. An alternative arrangement has the slots in the flanges and the tenons on the disc.
(雙滑塊聯軸器)一種連接一對未對準平行軸的裝置,在每個平行軸的端部有法蘭,法蘭具有直徑榫(舌),與中間盤中間隔90°的匹配槽接合。當聯軸器旋轉時,圓盤通過依次沿每個榫頭滑動來補償軸偏移。低摩擦表面是必需的,閥盤通常由聚合物制成。另一種布置方式是法蘭上的槽和閥盤上的榫頭。
Absolute temperature (Unit K) 絕對溫度(單位K) A temperature T measured relative to absolute zero, 0 K or ?273.15°C, the lowest temperature achievable at which molecular motion vanishes so that a body would have zero heat energy. The kelvin is equal in magnitude to the degree Celsius (°C). The kelvin temperature scale (kelvin absolute temperature scale) is an absolute or thermodynamic temperature scale derived from the Celsius scale: T(K) = T(°C) + 273.15. The Rankine absolute scale is derived from the Fahrenheit scale such that T(R) = T(°F) + 459.67, i.e. a scale relative to 0 R or ?459.67°F where R is the Rankine degree symbol and °F is the Fahrenheit symbol.
相對于絕對零、0K或0K測量的溫度T?273.15°C,分子運動消失的最低溫度,因此物體的熱能為零。開爾文的大小等于攝氏度(℃)。開爾文溫度標度(開爾文絕對溫度標度)是從攝氏標度得出的絕對或熱力學溫度標度:T(K)=T(°C)+273.15。蘭金絕對標度是從華氏標度得出,使得T(R)=T(°F)+459.67,即相對于0R或0R的標度?459.67°F,其中R是朗肯度符號,°F是華氏度符號。
Anti-freeze 防凍液 A substance such as ethylene glycol added to the cooling system of a watercooled engine to lower the freezing point of the cooling water and also inhibit the formation of rust and other deposits.
一種物質,如乙二醇,添加到水冷發動機的冷卻系統中,以降低冷卻水的冰點,并抑制生銹和其他沉積物的形成。
Statistic 統計 A summary value calculated from the observed values in a sample.
根據樣本中的觀察值計算得出的匯總值。
A-basis A-基礎 Mechanical property value above which at least 99% of the population of values is expected to fall, with a confidence of 95%. Also called A-allowable.
機械性能值超過該值時,至少99%的值預計會下降,置信度為95%。也被稱為A-容許。
Solenoid 螺線管 A coil of electrically-conducting wire wrapped around a metal core, typically iron, to produce a magnetic field and hence a force on the core when an electric current passes through the coil. Solenoids are widely used to produce linear movement to actuate valves (solenoid valves) and other devices.
繞在金屬芯(通常為鐵)上的導線線圈,當電流通過線圈時產生磁場,從而在芯上產生力。電磁閥廣泛用于產生線性運動以驅動閥(電磁閥)和其他裝置。
Offset modulus 補償模量 The ratio of the offset yield stress to the extension at the offset point (plastics).
偏移屈服應力與偏移點(塑料)處延伸的比率。
Tensiometer 張力計 An instrument used to measure surface tension.
用來測量表面張力的儀器。
Constant-mesh gearbox 恒嚙合齒輪箱 A gearbox in which the pairs of gears giving different speed ratios are constantly in mesh, different ratios being obtained by? connecting or disconnecting the relevant gear to the driving shaft.
一種齒輪箱,其中提供不同速比的齒輪對始終嚙合,通過將相關齒輪連接或斷開驅動軸獲得不同的速比。
Slug 猛擊 1. A starting workpiece for forging and similar operations, such as a length of wire or rod to make a bolt blank on which a thread can be rolled or cut. 2. (geepound) An obsolete imperial (non-SI) unit of mass, being the mass which under an acceleration of one foot per second squared gives a force of one pound-force. The conversion to SI is 1 slug = 14.593 902 94 kg. 3. A large-scale flow structure which occurs in the transition from laminar to turbulent flow in a pipe.
1.一種用于鍛造和類似操作的起始工件,如用于制造螺栓毛坯的一段線材或棒材,在該毛坯上可以軋制或切割螺紋。2.(吉磅)一種已被淘汰的英制(非國際單位制)質量單位,在一英尺/秒平方加速度下產生一磅力的質量。轉化為SI國際單位制的轉化率為1slug=14.59390294kg。3.一種大規模流動結構,其發生在管道中從層流到湍流的過渡中。
Fatigue test 疲勞測試 A method for determining the range of alternating (fluctuating)stresses a material can withstand without failing.
一種確定材料可以承受而不會失效的交變(波動)應力范圍的方法。
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